Wednesday, February 20, 2019

Carbene Addition Lab

Synthesis of 7, 7- dichloronorcarane in Carbon Addition Reaction CHM 337 Dr. Pettit elevate A solution of cyclohexene, aqueous sodium hydrated oxide, and benzyltriethylammonium was used to compound 7,7 dichloronorcarane by the following fightion + CHCl3 + OH H2O + + Cl After completion of the experimentation, the percent recovery was calculated to be 46. 21% Introduction The purpose of this experiment was to form 7,7-dichloronorcarane by means of carbene trapping.Cyclohexene, aqueous sodium hydroxide, and benzyltriethylammonium chloride were used to synthesize 7,7 dichloronorcarane by the following reaction + CHCl3 + OH- H2O + + Cl- In order to remove out this reaction in reasonable time, a two physique reaction was used, avoiding the lengthy requirements to carry out the experiment as a single variety reaction, as well as the risk of unwanted products due to the presence of water. The components of the two stage reaction were as follows An organic fertiliser phase con taining the alkene and CHCl2 and an aqueous phase containing the base OH .Since the reactants, CHCl2 and OH would separate into unlike phases, benzyltriethylammonium chloride was added as a phase-transfer particle accelerator. Because the benzyltriethylammonium chloride has both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties, it could cross the phase boundary and facilitated the transport of the hydroxide ion from the aqueous phase to the organic phase. evaluate spectral changes in IR and 13C-NMR Procedure To begin, 0. 324g of cyclohexene was mixed with 1 ml of 50% aqueous sodium hydroxide, 1ml of put out and 0. 040g of the phase transfer catalyst benzyltriethylammonium chloride.The reaction was stirred and heated at 40 degrees Celsius for an hour onward extracting the 7,7 dichloronorcarane through 2 methyl chloride extraction processes (1ml methylene chloride). The product was indeed air dried until no more liquid would evaporate, and weighed giving a percent recovery of 43%. The sub stance was then used to ask an IR and 13C-NMR spectra test giving the results. Results and Calculations Calculating moles of cyclohexene (81g cyclohexene/1ml) * (0. 40ml cyclohexene) = 0. 324g cyclohexene 0. 324g cyclohexene*(1mol cyclohexene/82. g cyclohexene) = 3. 95 * 10-3 mol cyclohexene Calculating moles of chloroform 1. 49g/ml chloroform * 1ml of chloroform = 1. 49g of chloroform 1. 49g of chloroform * (1mol of chloroform/119. 4g chloroform)= 1. 25 * 10-2 moles chloroform. Calculating moles of benzyltriethylammonium chloride (1. 08g benzyltriethylammonium chloride/ml) * 0. 040ml of benzyltriethylammonium chloride = 0. 0432 grams benzyltriethylammonium chloride * 1mol/227.8g benzyltriethylammonium chloride = 1. 896 * 10-4 moles benzyltriethylammonium chloride purpose the limiting reagent CHCl3 +OH- H2O + Cl- (balanced as is with catalyst in rxn) 3. 95 * 10-3 mol cyclohexene 1. 25 * 10-2 moles chloroform 0. 058 moles of sodium hydroxide * Cyclohexane has the net amount on rea ctant side and is the limiting reagent. Amount of 7,7 dichloronorcarane= 3. 95*10-3 moles * 165. 06g 7,7dichloronorcarane/mol= 0. 652g 7,7 dichloronorcarane hypothetic coming back Experimental yield of dichloronorcarane= test vacuum tube with test tube without (27. 159grams 26. 890grams)= 0. 269grams dichloronorcarane Percent recovery (Actual mass yield/ theoretical mass yield) * 100%= percent recovery (0. 69grams/0. 652grams) *100%= 41. 26% yield recovery Formation of 7,7 dichloronorcarane + CHCl3 + OH- H2O + Cl Discussion and Conclusions Discussion Topics and Questions a. correspond IR and 13C-NMR spectra of cyclohexene and 7,7-dichloronorcarane and point out changes in IR vibrational frequencies and 13C-NMR resonances that put forward the formation of 7,7-dicholoronorcarane. Be sure to identify the C-H stretch of the cyclopropane ring hydrogens. b. why did you need to stir the mixture vigorously during the reaction?Since the reactants are in different phases, stirring vig orously allowed the catalyst to transfer a hydroxide ion from the aqueous phase to the organic phase, allowing the reaction to proceed as desired. c. why did you wash the organic phase with consummate(a) sodium chloride solution? The saturated sodium chloride was important for the removal of water. If the water was not removed from solution, it could react and create undesirable reactions, such as those described in Pavia (4) (5) d. key out two chemical tests and the visual results that would indicate whether cyclohexene is present or absent.Bromine in methylene chloride If the step-up of bromide (red liquid) results in a colorless solution, cyclohexene is present. kelvin Permanganate (Baeyer test) This reaction depends on the color change from purple MnO4- ion into a brown precipitate of MnO2 e. Draw the structures of the products that you would expect from the reactions of cis and trans-2-butene. Be sure to comment on the stereochemistry of the products (enantiomers and meso forms). f. Provide a mechanism for the formation of the following products of a carbine addition reaction

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