Saturday, August 31, 2019

The Lost Symbol Chapter 113-116

CHAPTER 113 Wrapped in wool blankets, Langdon stood on wobbly legs and stared down at the open tank of liquid. His body had returned to him, although he wished it had not. His throat and lungs burned. This world felt hard and cruel. Sato had just explained the sensory-deprivation tank . . . adding that if she had not pulled him out, he would have died of starvation, or worse. Langdon had little doubt that Peter had endured a similar experience. Peter is in the in-between, the tattooed man had told him earlier tonight. He is in purgatory . . . Hamistagan. If Peter had endured more than one of those birthing processes, Langdon would not have been surprised if Peter had told his captor anything he had wanted to know. Sato motioned for Langdon to follow her, and he did, trudging slowly down a narrow hall, deeper into this bizarre lair that he was now seeing for the first time. They entered a square room with a stone table and eerie-colored lighting. Katherine was here, and Langdon heaved a sigh of relief. Even so, the scene was worrisome. Katherine was lying on her back on a stone table. Blood-soaked towels lay on the floor. A CIA agent was holding an IV bag above her, the tube connected to her arm. She was sobbing quietly. â€Å"Katherine?† Langdon croaked, barely able to speak. She turned her head, looking disorientated and confused. â€Å"Robert?!† Her eyes widened with disbelief and then joy. â€Å"But I . . . saw you drown!† He moved toward the stone table. Katherine pulled herself to a seated position, ignoring her IV tube and the medical objections of the agent. Langdon reached the table, and Katherine reached out, wrapping her arms around his blanket-clad body, holding him close. â€Å"Thank God,† she whispered, kissing his cheek. Then she kissed him again, squeezing him as though she didn't believe he was real. â€Å"I don't understand . . . how . . .† Sato began saying something about sensory-deprivation tanks and oxygenated perfluorocarbons, but Katherine clearly wasn't listening. She just held Langdon close. â€Å"Robert,† she said, â€Å"Peter's alive.† Her voice wavered as she recounted her horrifying reunion with Peter. She described his physical condition–the wheelchair, the strange knife, the allusions to some kind of â€Å"sacrifice,† and how she had been left bleeding as a human hourglass to persuade Peter to cooperate quickly. Langdon could barely speak. â€Å"Do you . . . have any idea where . . . they went?!† â€Å"He said he was taking Peter to the sacred mountain.† Langdon pulled away and stared at her. Katherine had tears in her eyes. â€Å"He said he had deciphered the grid on the bottom of the pyramid, and that the pyramid told him to go to the sacred mountain.† â€Å"Professor,† Sato pressed, â€Å"does that mean anything to you?† Langdon shook his head. â€Å"Not at all.† Still, he felt a surge of hope. â€Å"But if he got the information off the bottom of the pyramid, we can get it, too.† I told him how to solve it. Sato shook her head. â€Å"The pyramid's gone. We've looked. He took it with him.† Langdon remained silent a moment, closing his eyes and trying to recall what he had seen on the base of the pyramid. The grid of symbols had been one of the last images he had seen before drowning, and trauma had a way of burning memories deeper into the mind. He could recall some of the grid, definitely not all of it, but maybe enough? He turned to Sato and said hurriedly, â€Å"I may be able to remember enough, but I need you to look up something on the Internet.† She pulled out her BlackBerry. â€Å"Run a search for `The Order Eight Franklin Square.' â€Å" Sato gave him a startled look but began typing without questions. Langdon's vision was still blurry, and he was only now starting to process his strange surroundings. He realized that the stone table on which they were leaning was covered with old bloodstains, and the wall to his right was entirely plastered with pages of text, photos, drawings, maps, and a giant web of strings interconnecting them. My God. Langdon moved toward the strange collage, still clutching the blankets around his body. Tacked on the wall was an utterly bizarre collection of information–pages from ancient texts ranging from black magic to Christian Scripture, drawings of symbols and sigils, pages of conspiracy- theory Web sites, and satellite photos of Washington, D.C., scrawled with notes and question marks. One of the sheets was a long list of words in many languages. He recognized some of them as sacred Masonic words, others as ancient magic words, and others from ceremonial incantations. Is that what he's looking for? A word? Is it that simple? Langdon's long-standing skepticism about the Masonic Pyramid was based largely on what it allegedly revealed–the location of the Ancient Mysteries. This discovery would have to involve an enormous vault filled with thousands upon thousands of volumes that had somehow survived the long-lost ancient libraries in which they had once been stored. It all seemed impossible. A vault that big? Beneath D.C.? Now, however, his recollection of Peter's lecture at Phillips Exeter, combined with these lists of magic words, had opened another startling possibility. Langdon most definitely did not believe in the power of magic words . . . and yet it seemed pretty clear that the tattooed man did. His pulse quickened as he again scanned the scrawled notes, the maps, the texts, the printouts, and all the interconnected strings and sticky notes. Sure enough, there was one recurring theme. My God, he's looking for the verbum significatium . . . the Lost Word. Langdon let the thought take shape, recalling fragments of Peter's lecture. The Lost Word is what he's looking for! That's what he believes is buried here in Washington. Sato arrived beside him. â€Å"Is this what you asked for?† She handed him her BlackBerry. Langdon looked at the eight-by-eight grid of numbers on the screen. â€Å"Exactly.† He grabbed a piece of scrap paper. â€Å"I'll need a pen.† Sato handed him one from her pocket. â€Å"Please hurry.† Inside the basement office of the Directorate of Science and Technology, Nola Kaye was once again studying the redacted document brought to her by sys-sec Rick Parrish. What the hell is the CIA director doing with a file about ancient pyramids and secret underground locations? She grabbed the phone and dialed. Sato answered instantly, sounding tense. â€Å"Nola, I was just about to call you.† â€Å"I have new information,† Nola said. â€Å"I'm not sure how this fits, but I've discovered there's a redacted–â€Å" â€Å"Forget it, whatever it is,† Sato interrupted. â€Å"We're out of time. We failed to apprehend the target, and I have every reason to believe he's about to carry out his threat.† Nola felt a chill. â€Å"The good news is we know exactly where he's going.† Sato took a deep breath. â€Å"The bad news is that he's carrying a laptop with him.† CHAPTER 114 Less than ten miles away, Mal'akh tucked the blanket around Peter Solomon and wheeled him across a moonlit parking lot into the shadow of an enormous building. The structure had exactly thirty-three outer columns . . . each precisely thirty-three feet tall. The mountainous structure was deserted at this hour, and nobody would ever see them back here. Not that it mattered. From a distance, no one would think twice about a tall, kindly-looking man in a long black coat taking a bald invalid for an evening stroll. When they reached the rear entrance, Mal'akh wheeled Peter up close to the security keypad. Peter stared at it defiantly, clearly having no intention of entering the code. Mal'akh laughed. â€Å"You think you're here to let me in? Have you forgotten so soon that I am one of your brethren?† He reached out and typed the access code that he had been given after his initiation to the thirty-third degree. The heavy door clicked open. Peter groaned and began struggling in the wheelchair. â€Å"Peter, Peter,† Mal'akh cooed. â€Å"Picture Katherine. Be cooperative, and she will live. You can save her. I give you my word.† Mal'akh wheeled his captive inside and relocked the door behind them, his heart racing now with anticipation. He pushed Peter through some hallways to an elevator and pressed the call button. The doors opened, and Mal'akh backed in, pulling the wheelchair along with him. Then, making sure Peter could see what he was doing, he reached out and pressed the uppermost button. A look of deepening dread crossed Peter's tortured face. â€Å"Shh . . .† Mal'akh whispered, gently stroking Peter's shaved head as the elevator doors closed. â€Å"As you well know . . . the secret is how to die.† I can't remember all the symbols! Langdon closed his eyes, doing his best to recall the precise locations of the symbols on the bottom of the stone pyramid, but even his eidetic memory did not have that degree of recall. He wrote down the few symbols he could remember, placing each one in the location indicated by Franklin's magic square. So far, however, he saw nothing that made any sense. â€Å"Look!† Katherine urged. â€Å"You must be on the right track. The first row is all Greek letters–the same kinds of symbols are being arranged together!† Langdon had noticed this, too, but he could not think of any Greek word that fit that configuration of letters and spaces. I need the first letter. He glanced again at the magic square, trying to recall the letter that had been in the number one spot near the lower left corner. Think! He closed his eyes, trying to picture the base of the pyramid. The bottom row . . . next to the left- hand corner . . . what letter was there? For an instant, Langdon was back in the tank, racked with terror, staring up through the Plexiglas at the bottom of the pyramid. Now, suddenly, he saw it. He opened his eyes, breathing heavily. â€Å"The first letter is H!† Langdon turned back to the grid and wrote in the first letter. The word was still incomplete, but he had seen enough. Suddenly he realized what the word might be. ! Pulse pounding, Langdon typed a new search into the BlackBerry. He entered the English equivalent of this well-known Greek word. The first hit that appeared was an encyclopedia entry. He read it and knew it had to be right. HEREDOM n. a significant word in â€Å"high degree† Freemasonry, from French Rose Croix rituals, where it refers to a mythical mountain in Scotland, the legendary site of the first such Chapter. From the Greek originating from Hieros-domos, Greek for Holy House. â€Å"That's it!† Langdon exclaimed, incredulous. â€Å"That's where they went!† Sato had been reading over his shoulder and looked lost. â€Å"To a mythical mountain in Scotland?!† Langdon shook his head. â€Å"No, to a building in Washington whose code name is Heredom.† CHAPTER 115 The House of the Temple–known among its brethren as Heredom–had always been the crown jewel of the Masonic Scottish Rite in America. With its steeply sloped, pyramidical roof, the building was named for an imaginary Scottish mountain. Mal'akh knew, however, there was nothing imaginary about the treasure hidden here. This is the place, he knew. The Masonic Pyramid has shown the way. As the old elevator slowly made its way to the third floor, Mal'akh took out the piece of paper on which he had reorganized the grid of symbols using the Franklin Square. All the Greek letters had now shifted to the first row . . . along with one simple symbol. The message could not have been more clear. Beneath the House of the Temple. Heredom The Lost Word is here . . . somewhere. Although Mal'akh did not know precisely how to locate it, he was confident that the answer lay in the remaining symbols on the grid. Conveniently, when it came to unlocking the secrets of the Masonic Pyramid and of this building, no one was more qualified to help than Peter Solomon. The Worshipful Master himself. Peter continued to struggle in the wheelchair, making muffled sounds through his gag. â€Å"I know you're worried about Katherine,† Mal'akh said. â€Å"But it's almost over.† For Mal'akh, the end felt like it had arrived very suddenly. After all the years of pain and planning, waiting and searching . . . the moment had now arrived. The elevator began to slow, and he felt a rush of excitement. The carriage jolted to a stop. The bronze doors slid open, and Mal'akh gazed out at the glorious chamber before them. The massive square room was adorned with symbols and bathed in moonlight, which shone down through the oculus at the pinnacle of the ceiling high above. I have come full circle, Mal'akh thought. The Temple Room was the same place in which Peter Solomon and his brethren had so foolishly initiated Mal'akh as one of their own. Now the Masons' most sublime secret–something that most of the brethren did not even believe existed–was about to be unearthed. â€Å"He won't find anything,† Langdon said, still feeling groggy and disorientated as he followed Sato and the others up the wooden ramp out of the basement. â€Å"There is no actual Word. It's all a metaphor–a symbol of the Ancient Mysteries.† Katherine followed, with two agents assisting her weakened body up the ramp. As the group moved gingerly through the wreckage of the steel door, through the rotating painting, and into the living room, Langdon explained to Sato that the Lost Word was one of Freemasonry's most enduring symbols–a single word, written in an arcane language that man could no longer decipher. The Word, like the Mysteries themselves, promised to unveil its hidden power only to those enlightened enough to decrypt it. â€Å"It is said,† Langdon concluded, â€Å"that if you can possess and understand the Lost Word . . . then the Ancient Mysteries will become clear to you.† Sato glanced over. â€Å"So you believe this man is looking for a word?† Langdon had to admit it sounded absurd at face value, and yet it answered a lot of questions. â€Å"Look, I'm no specialist in ceremonial magic,† he said, â€Å"but from the documents on his basement walls . . . and from Katherine's description of the untattooed flesh on his head . . . I'd say he's hoping to find the Lost Word and inscribe it on his body.† Sato moved the group toward the dining room. Outside, the helicopter was warming up, its blades thundering louder and louder. Langdon kept talking, thinking aloud. â€Å"If this guy truly believes he is about to unlock the power of the Ancient Mysteries, no symbol would be more potent in his mind than the Lost Word. If he could find it and inscribe it on the top of his head–a sacred location in itself–then he would no doubt consider himself perfectly adorned and ritualistically prepared to . . .† He paused, seeing Katherine blanch at the thought of Peter's impending fate. â€Å"But, Robert,† she said weakly, her voice barely audible over the helicopter blades. â€Å"This is good news, right? If he wants to inscribe the Lost Word on the top of his head before he sacrifices Peter, then we have time. He won't kill Peter until he finds the Word. And, if there is no Word . . .† Langdon tried to look hopeful as the agents helped Katherine into a chair. â€Å"Unfortunately, Peter still thinks you're bleeding to death. He thinks the only way to save you is to cooperate with this lunatic . . .probably to help him find the Lost Word.† â€Å"So what?† she insisted. â€Å"If the Word doesn't exist–â€Å" â€Å"Katherine,† Langdon said, staring deeply into her eyes. â€Å"If I believed you were dying, and if someone promised me I could save you by finding the Lost Word, then I would find this man a word–any word–and then I'd pray to God he kept his promise.† â€Å"Director Sato!† an agent shouted from the next room. â€Å"You'd better see this!† Sato hurried out of the dining room and saw one of her agents coming down the stairs from the bedroom. He was carrying a blond wig. What the hell? â€Å"Man's hairpiece,† he said, handing it to her. â€Å"Found it in the dressing room. Have a close look.† The blond wig was much heavier than Sato expected. The skullcap seemed to be molded of a thick gel. Strangely, the underside of the wig had a wire protruding from it. â€Å"Gel-pack battery that molds to your scalp,† the agent said. â€Å"Powers a fiber-optic pinpoint camera hidden in the hair.† â€Å"What?† Sato felt around with her fingers until she found the tiny camera lens nestled invisibly within the blond bangs. â€Å"This thing's a hidden camera?† â€Å"Video camera,† the agent said. â€Å"Stores footage on this tiny solid-state card.† He pointed to a stamp-size square of silicon embedded in the skullcap. â€Å"Probably motion activated.† Jesus, she thought. So that's how he did it. This sleek version of the â€Å"flower in the lapel† secret camera had played a key role in the crisis the OS director was facing tonight. She glared at it a moment longer and then handed it back to the agent. â€Å"Keep searching the house,† she said. â€Å"I want every bit of information you can find on this guy. We know his laptop is missing, and I want to know exactly how he plans to connect it to the outside world while he's on the move. Search his study for manuals, cables, anything at all that might give us a clue about his hardware.† â€Å"Yes, ma'am.† The agent hurried off. Time to move out. Sato could hear the whine of the helicopter blades at full pitch. She hurried back to the dining room, where Simkins had now ushered Warren Bellamy in from the helicopter and was gathering intel from him about the building to which they believed their target had gone. House of the Temple. â€Å"The front doors are sealed from within,† Bellamy was saying, still wrapped in a foil blanket and shivering visibly from his time outside in Franklin Square. â€Å"The building's rear entrance is your only way in. It's got a keypad with an access PIN known only to the brothers.† â€Å"What's the PIN?† Simkins demanded, taking notes. Bellamy sat down, looking too feeble to stand. Through chattering teeth, he recited his access code and then added, â€Å"The address is 1733 Sixteenth, but you'll want the access drive and parking area, behind the building. Kind of tricky to find, but–â€Å" â€Å"I know exactly where it is,† Langdon said. â€Å"I'll show you when we get there.† Simkins shook his head. â€Å"You're not coming, Professor. This is a military–â€Å" â€Å"The hell I'm not!† Langdon fired back. â€Å"Peter's in there! And that building's a labyrinth! Without someone to lead you in, you'll take ten minutes to find your way up to the Temple Room!† â€Å"He's right,† Bellamy said. â€Å"It's a maze. There is an elevator, but it's old and loud and opens in full view of the Temple Room. If you hope to move in quietly, you'll need to ascend on foot.† â€Å"You'll never find your way,† Langdon warned. â€Å"From that rear entrance, you're navigating through the Hall of Regalia, the Hall of Honor, the middle landing, the Atrium, the Grand Stair– â€Å" â€Å"Enough,† Sato said. â€Å"Langdon's coming.† CHAPTER 116 The energy was growing. Mal'akh could feel it pulsing within him, moving up and down his body as he wheeled Peter Solomon toward the altar. I will exit this building infinitely more powerful than when I entered. All that remained now was to locate the final ingredient. â€Å"Verbum significatium,† he whispered to himself. â€Å"Verbum omnificum.† Mal'akh parked Peter's wheelchair beside the altar and then circled around and unzipped the heavy daybag that sat on Peter's lap. Reaching inside, he lifted out the stone pyramid and held it up in the moonlight, directly in front of Peter's eyes, showing him the grid of symbols engraved on the bottom. â€Å"All these years,† he taunted, â€Å"and you never knew how the pyramid kept her secrets.† Mal'akh set the pyramid carefully on the corner of the altar and returned to the bag. â€Å"And this talisman,† he continued, extracting the golden capstone, â€Å"did indeed bring order from chaos, exactly as promised.† He placed the metal capstone carefully atop the stone pyramid, and then stepped back to give Peter a clear view. â€Å"Behold, your symbolon is complete.† Peter's face contorted, and he tried in vain to speak. â€Å"Good. I can see you have something you'd like to tell me.† Mal'akh roughly yanked out the gag. Peter Solomon coughed and gasped for several seconds before he finally managed to speak. â€Å"Katherine . . .† â€Å"Katherine's time is short. If you want to save her, I suggest you do exactly as I say.† Mal'akh suspected she was probably already dead, or if not, very close. It made no difference. She was lucky to have lived long enough to say good-bye to her brother. â€Å"Please,† Peter begged, his voice ragged. â€Å"Send an ambulance for her . . .† â€Å"I will do exactly that. But first you must tell me how to access the secret staircase.† Peter's expression turned to one of disbelief. â€Å"What?!† â€Å"The staircase. Masonic legend speaks of stairs that descend hundreds of feet to the secret location where the Lost Word is buried.† Peter now looked panicked. â€Å"You know the legend,† Mal'akh baited. â€Å"A secret staircase hidden beneath a stone.† He pointed to the central altar–a huge block of granite with a gilded inscription in Hebrew: GOD SAID, â€Å"LET THERE BE LIGHT† AND THERE WAS LIGHT. â€Å"Obviously, this is the right place. The entrance to the staircase must be hidden on one of the floors beneath us.† â€Å"There is no secret staircase in this building!† Peter shouted. Mal'akh smiled patiently and motioned upward. â€Å"This building is shaped like a pyramid.† He pointed to the four-sided vaulted ceiling that angled up to the square oculus in the center. â€Å"Yes, the House of the Temple is a pyramid, but what does–â€Å" â€Å"Peter, I have all night.† Mal'akh smoothed his white silk robe over his perfect body. â€Å"Katherine, however, does not. If you want her to live, you will tell me how to access the staircase.† â€Å"I already told you,† he declared, â€Å"there is no secret staircase in this building!† â€Å"No?† Mal'akh calmly produced the sheet of paper on which he had reorganized the grid of symbols from the base of the pyramid. â€Å"This is the Masonic Pyramid's final message. Your friend Robert Langdon helped me decipher it.† Mal'akh raised the paper and held it in front of Peter's eyes. The Worshipful Master inhaled sharply when he saw it. Not only had the sixty-four symbols been organized into clearly meaningful groups . . . but an actual image had materialized out of the chaos. An image of a staircase . . . beneath a pyramid. Peter Solomon stared in disbelief at the grid of symbols before him. The Masonic Pyramid had kept its secret for generations. Now, suddenly, it was being unveiled, and he felt a cold sense of foreboding in the pit of his stomach. The pyramid's final code. At a glance, the true meaning of these symbols remained a mystery to Peter, and yet he could immediately understand why the tattooed man believed what he believed. He thinks there is a hidden staircase beneath the pyramid called Heredom. He misunderstands these symbols. â€Å"Where is it?† the tattooed man demanded. â€Å"Tell me how to find the staircase, and I will save Katherine.† I wish I could do that, Peter thought. But the staircase is not real. The myth of the staircase was purely symbolic . . . part of the great allegories of Masonry. The Winding Staircase, as it was known, appeared on the second-degree tracing boards. It represented man's intellectual climb toward the Divine Truth. Like Jacob's ladder, the Winding Staircase was a symbol of the pathway to heaven . . . the journey of man toward God . . . the connection between the earthly and spiritual realms. Its steps represented the many virtues of the mind. He should know that, Peter thought. He endured all the initiations. Every Masonic initiate learned of the symbolic staircase that he could ascend, enabling him â€Å"to participate in the mysteries of human science.† Freemasonry, like Noetic Science and the Ancient Mysteries, revered the untapped potential of the human mind, and many of Masonry's symbols related to human physiology. The mind sits like a golden capstone atop the physical body. The Philosopher's Stone. Through the staircase of the spine, energy ascends and descends, circulating, connecting the heavenly mind to the physical body. Peter knew it was no coincidence that the spine was made up of exactly thirty-three vertebrae. Thirty-three are the degrees of Masonry. The base of the spine, or sacrum, literally meant â€Å"sacred bone.† The body is indeed a temple. The human science that Masons revered was the ancient understanding of how to use that temple for its most potent and noble purpose. Unfortunately, explaining the truth to this man was not going to help Katherine at all. Peter gazed down at the grid of symbols and gave a defeated sigh. â€Å"You're right,† he lied. â€Å"There is indeed a secret staircase beneath this building. And as soon as you send help to Katherine, I'll take you to it.† The man with the tattoos simply stared at him. Solomon glared back, eyes defiant. â€Å"Either save my sister and learn the truth . . . or kill us both and remain ignorant forever!† The man quietly lowered the paper and shook his head. â€Å"I'm not happy with you, Peter. You failed your test. You still take me for a fool. Do you truly believe I don't understand what it is I seek? Do you think I have not yet grasped my true potential?† With that, the man turned his back and slipped off his robe. As the white silk fluttered to the floor, Peter saw for the first time the long tattoo running up the man's spine. Dear God . . . Winding up from the man's white loincloth, an elegant spiral staircase ascended the middle of his muscular back. Each stair was positioned on a different vertebra. Speechless, Peter let his eyes ascend the staircase, all the way up to the base of the man's skull. Peter could only stare. The tattooed man now tipped his shaved head backward, revealing the circle of bare flesh on the pinnacle of his skull. The virgin skin was bordered by a single snake, looped in a circle, consuming itself. At-one-ment. Slowly now, the man lowered his head and turned to face Peter. The massive double-headed phoenix on his chest stared out through dead eyes. â€Å"I am looking for the Lost Word,† the man said. â€Å"Are you going to help me . . . or are you and your sister going to die?† You know how to find it, Mal'akh thought. You know something you're not telling me. Peter Solomon had revealed things under interrogation that he probably didn't even recall now. The repeated sessions in and out of the deprivation tank had left him delirious and compliant. Incredibly, when he spilled his guts, everything he told Mal'akh had been consistent with the legend of the Lost Word. The Lost Word is not a metaphor . . . it is real. The Word is written in an ancient language . . . and has been hidden for ages. The Word is capable of bringing unfathomable power to anyone who grasps its true meaning. The Word remains hidden to this day . . . and the Masonic Pyramid has the power to unveil it. â€Å"Peter,† Mal'akh now said, staring into his captive's eyes, â€Å"when you looked at that grid of symbols . . . you saw something. You had a revelation. This grid means something to you. Tell me.† â€Å"I will tell you nothing until you send help to Katherine!† Mal'akh smiled at him. â€Å"Believe me, the prospect of losing your sister is the least of your worries right now.† Without another word, he turned to Langdon's daybag and started removing the items he had packed in his basement. Then he began meticulously arranging them on the sacrificial altar. A folded silk cloth. Pure white. A silver censer. Egyptian myrrh. A vial of Peter's blood. Mixed with ash. A black crow's feather. His sacred stylus. The sacrificial knife. Forged of iron from a meteorite in the desert of Canaan. â€Å"You think I am afraid to die?† Peter shouted, his voice racked with anguish. â€Å"If Katherine is gone, I have nothing left! You've murdered my entire family! You've taken everything from me!† â€Å"Not everything,† Mal'akh replied. â€Å"Not yet.† He reached into the day-bag and pulled out the laptop from his study. He turned it on and looked over at his captive. â€Å"I'm afraid you have not yet grasped the true nature of your predicament.†

Friday, August 30, 2019


Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is the progression of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV).   AIDS is the final stage of the development of HIV.   Without receiving treatment, an HIV infected person usually develops AIDS within ten years (, 2007).   In order to understand AIDS, you must understand where it comes from: HIV.HIV is a virus, transmitted from one person who is infected to another person who is not infected.   HIV attacks the immune system and kills a specific system cell called a CD4 lymphocyte (, 2007).   HIV is a rapid mutating virus, which helps it form being destroyed by the immune system’s natural defenses.According to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the first human case of HIV appeared in a male from the Democratic Republic of Congo in 1959.   It is unknown exactly how he became infected (, 2007).   The CDC stated (2007):â€Å"For many years scientists theorized as to the origins of H IV and how it appeared in the human population, most believing that HIV originated in other primates.Then in 1999, an international team of researchers reported that they had discovered the origins of HIV-1, the predominant strain of HIV in the developed world.   A subspecies of chimpanzees native to west equatorial Africa had been identified as the original source of the virus.The researchers believe that HIV-1 was introduced into the human population when hunters became exposed to infected blood† (, 2007).In America, the first cases of AIDS occurred in the beginning of the 1980s.   There had been a few cases of homosexual men who developed opportunistic cancers or infections that did not respond to treatment attempts.   AIDS was not yet named.   AIDS was later identified in 1982.There are four main stages that compose HIV infection: â€Å"primary infection, clinically asymptomatic stage, symptomatic HIV infection, and progression from HIV to AIDS† (Adve ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Primary infection is similar to the flu, with symptoms that are characteristic of the flu virus.   This stage only lasts a few weeks.   During this stage, diagnosis is often missed (, 2007) ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The clinically asymptomatic stage can have an average duration of ten years.   There are usually no symptoms during this time.   Antibody tests, however, can be positive for HIV.The viral load test plays an important role in treatment.   It measures the amount of HIV that enters the lymph nodes, where the virus tends to gravitate to (, 2007). ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The symptomatic HIV infection stage shows more symptoms.   This is because the immune system has been damaged quite a bit more.   The symptoms can start out weak and become stronger as the immune system deteriorates further.   During this time, many opportunistic infections and cancers appear (, 20 07). ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The final stage is the progression from HIV to AIDS.   A person with HIV will be diagnosed with AIDS when they develop a low count of T helper cells.   They may also be diagnosed with AIDS if they have several opportunistic infections or cancers ( symptoms of AIDS can vary.   Most symptoms are caused by infections.   Many are similar to the flu virus, such as fever, chills, and weakness.   Major pulmonary illnesses that can occur are pneumocystis pneumonia and tuberculosis.Major gastrointestinal illnesses that can occur are esophagitis and chronic diarrhea.   Major neurological illnesses that can occur are toxoplasmosis, which infects the brain, eyes, or lungs, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), which causes nerve impulse impairment, AIDS dementia complex (ADC), and cryptoccal meningitis, which can be fatal if not treated (Wikipedia Online Encyclopedia, 2007).Major opportunistic cancers occur in peopl e with HIV, and almost always signal progression to AIDS.   The following malignant cancers can lead to an AIDS diagnosis: ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Kaposi’s sarcoma – the most common type of tumor found in HIV+ people; affects the skin, mouth, lungs, and gastrointestinal tract ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   B-cell lymphomas – the presence of these cancers almost guarantees a person has progressed to AIDS ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Cervical cancer – In women with HIV, this cancer is caused by the human papilloma virus (HPV)With a weakened immune system, HIV+ people can also develop a large amount of infections that can be bacterial, fungal, parasitic, or viral in nature.   The following are descriptions of some of the possibilities, provided by (2006):

Of Media and Press Freedom

Fahrenheit 9/11, a documentary film which debuted in the 2004 Cannes Film Festival, was produced, written, and directed by the now controversial Michael Moore. It has – and continues to – create waves in American society for its liberal and litigious perspectives. Although the title includes the fateful numbers 9 and 11, the documentary was not really about September 11, but it did touch briefly on that doomful day for all Americans; especially since it was pivotal for the discussion of what was really the movie’s main target. The film provided not only the American people but also the world over a critical look on George W. Bush’s presidency and his War on Terrorism. Moore, admittedly a liberal, is not exactly fond of President George W. Bush. And this is apparent in his works, especially with the documentary film now in question. In fact, Fahrenheit 9/11 was mostly an attack on W. Bush and the way he handled the 9/11 attacks and the pressing threat of terrorism on America. Moore contends that W. Bush was not exactly an inept president; au contraire, he was a really smart one who knew just how influential his position is. Released in America under the presidency of the very man it sought to destroy, Fahrenheit 9/11 was the perfect example of just how much democracy can be – and, sometimes, should be – very lenient on the media. With the media being branded as a ‘watchdog’, serving as the citizens’ omnipotent eye on the goings-on of politics and everything else that concerns them, it is very necessary to let the media speak as freely as it should. Even with moves to censor and even discredit Moore and his claims in this documentary, the Bush administration had to let the movie be shown as completely hiding Fahrenheit 9/11 from the public will be a cause for questioning the government’s commitment to freedom of speech, which is clearly stated in the First Amendment of the Bill of Rights. Yet with the admirable way Fahrenheit 9/11 demonstrated our country’s committal to press freedom, the Palme d’Or recipient also painted just how media can also go overboard and abuse its function as a watchdog. Even with the guise of being a look into how a president can abuse his powers, Fahrenheit 9/11 was made in a manner that can cause discord. Made and exhibited at a time when Americans are still healing from the wounds of September 11 and the movie painfully refreshed the hurt that the events caused the American people. As the now popular Spiderman saying goes, â€Å"With great power comes great responsibility.† This only means that people behind the media know just when propagandas and destructive materials should be kept to a minimum. Assuming that Moore did get his facts right in the movie and his claims in his award-winning documentary have basis and are deserving of being exposed to the people, we can still see just how abusive media can be of its powers – this time, we’ll see it in the stories that Moore weaved. Media’s insolent nature is most apparent in the part where the movie’s director/writer portrayed the news networks’ contribution to the ‘fear’ propaganda. Moore claims that the launching of a war in Iraq had no basis, just W. Bush’s own ‘fear’ propaganda, which (as was also stated by Member of the Congress Jim McDermott) was spurred by the media’s willing coverage of the Bush administration’s feed of the ‘constant’ threat of terrorism even though there were no specific details handed out. And so in a way, Moore also momentarily paints a tirade on American media’s eagerness to become a voice of the Bush administration by presenting the terror threat and even the Iraqi war in a non-rationale way, going with what the W. Bush administration wanted them to cover. For Moore, a lot of lies and cover-ups happened with the War on Terrorism coverage. Indeed, Fahrenheit 9/11 may have torn the nation into two – some believing its theories wholeheartedly, and some reserving their trust to the Bush administration. But for any political science student, the movie is a perfect look as to how important a role and responsibility the media posses in a democratic society. The movie also throws in the glaring fact that the media – with all its freedom and responsibility – should take extra care in handling its affairs. References Fahrenheit 9/11. Dir. Michael Moore. 2004, June 25. DVD. Lion Gates Films, 2004.

Thursday, August 29, 2019

Sales Managment Assignment Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Sales Managment Assignment - Essay Example This paper approves that keeping the current scenario in mind, Total Gas & Power Ltd depends on its people being able to work together and systematically planned induction training will greatly accelerate this. Hence an induction plan is accordingly set which would cover a long checklist. A formal induction will be carried out. In case of formal orientation the program is very much structured and systematic. Everything in program is layed down previously and the flow is very much according to that. In this, the sales executive is made knowledgeable about four aspects which are- the organization, the job, the employees and other aspects. This essay makes a conclusion the sales personnel should be made more knowledgeable about their product’s features and its functions through seminars etc. Finally good performance should be rewarded with monetary incentives. Next, the performance appraisal scheme that had been introduced should be communicated to the employees properly leaving no room for confusion. Then, a senior sales executive should undertake the responsibility of tackling the complaints received from customers, evaluate its causes and then find out their solutions. Finally, the organization is looking forward to introduce another office in the mainland Europe. For this, they s should be highly motivated and informed about the market trends. The risk bearing capacity should be high in the beginning and they should strive towards building good customer relations.

Wednesday, August 28, 2019

Effective Cancer Symptoms Management Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Effective Cancer Symptoms Management - Essay Example Additionally, the change in symptom management programs applies the use of technology to detect and to deal with breast cancer symptoms. Apart from technology, specialization is also applied in the novel symptoms management programs. Pain, anxiety and fatigue are the common challenges faced by cancer patients. For their urge to get relief, patients seek alternative modes of therapies apart from their normal medical procedures. These numbers of patients make to about 90% of all cancer patients (Jemal, et al., 2008). This is a clear indication that a comprehensive cancer symptom management programs need to be established. One of the most important symptom management changes is the art therapy. The art therapy is not only for patients and their families, but also the general public. This is simply a clinical intervention of therapy which creates awareness about cancer. Additionally, it creates the belief that art nourishes ones health and strengthens ones life. Mainly, art therapy deals with the creation of awareness and expression of patients’ deepest emotions (Shaw, 2011). In the case of breast cancer, an expression of an individual emotion is very important. Breast cancer can be demoralizing and the best way to create the feeling of self appreciation is by expressing one’s feelings. ... He is transferred to an urban medical centre for a period of four months. The patient should be above the age of eighteen, communicate in English and have the ability to have an hour session on art therapy. The following breast cancer symptoms are studied during art therapy: pain, tiredness, nausea, depression, anxiety, drowsiness, lack of appetite and shortage of breath. Two instruments are used in the art therapy: the Edmonton Symptom Assessment Scale (ESAS) and the State Trait Anxiety Index (STAIS-S). These two instruments are used in the study and analysis of the breast cancer symptoms. The ESAS is an instrument which is used in the symptom assessment of palliative care. The measurement is done on a numerical scale which runs from 0-10. The patient under study picks the number which he feels is the level of improvement in the giving of palliative care. Zero stands for the worst and ten for the best level. The STAI-S is used mainly in measurement of anxiety in adults. It gives the determination on whether the anxiety is long term or conditional. Apart from the two instruments, the patient is asked three open ended questions which give a more proper outlook of the therapy. The questions in this case include; would you undertake art therapy again if given the opportunity? , did you experience any change caused by the art therapy and did you find art therapy comfortable? The art therapist would then take on the patients through the necessary steps. The art therapist should be licensed by the government. The therapist acts as a helper to the patient. He also picks the media the patient is exposed to. Additionally, he drafts the course of the program. Patients take part in activities such as drawing and

Tuesday, August 27, 2019

School shootings and active shooter and the media Research Paper

School shootings and active shooter and the media - Research Paper Example This act has obtained wide media attention and are frequent in the United State of America. They have resulted in countrywide change of schools’ rules concerning discipline and security. Among the reasons for this shooting are school bullying and psychiatric drugs. (Schechter DS February 16, 2011) Schools bullying public seems to play a big part in the lives of many of the school shooters. It consists of the criminal, casualty and one or more witness. This create public disgrace for the victim. The victim being disheartened develop depression, poor social skills and do worse in school performance. Psychiatric drugs has caused hostility, ferocity murderous ideation, and zone of high profile of school shootings. At least 41 school shootings are committed by those taking these drugs. (Schechter DS February 16, 2011). Apart from school shootings, there is also a rise in active shooters. The active shooters specifically engage in killings or try to kill people in a limited population area. They also use rifles. This act has raised up and results to pressure of insecurity to the student in the education institution and the country at large. ( Media as the source of data has worked hard to eradicate the crime. The media have developed some refrains that inspires public perception of school violence. They include: social problematic frames (Evans, 2011) This common form incites fear by characteristic performances of school as wide spread wonders. It has taken information which suggests that school violence incidents are out of regulations and offer evidently support in the form of recent statistic to support the argument. ( Good news- Bad news frame. Although certain parts of an article may deliver the data that rates of school hostility have dropped, the frame

Monday, August 26, 2019

DB6 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

DB6 - Essay Example rol of Spanish possessions in the Caribbean such as Cuba, Puerto Rico, and other islands, but as the war expanded so would the remit of the Monroe Doctrine. The United States would gain control of the Philippines, far from its own shore, and attempt to remake the Spanish colonialism political system in its own image. The result would be a bloody conflict fought with Filipino insurgents that would take America many years to quell. As the decades went by and American became more involved in its own neighbourhood, this conflict would play a very influential role. America would not focus on building local capacity and democracy, but would instead treat Puerto Rico and Cuba effectively as colonies. Following the American victory over Spain and the taking of the Philippines, there was a great deal of tension between the U.S. and the locals. This came to a head in 1899 when American soldiers shot some Filipinos. Things quickly got out of hand with both sides raising armies and fighting conventional wars. The Americans rapidly defeated the conventional Filipino forces, killing two of their best generals and pacifying many of the urban areas. During this period, the President appointed distinguished Americans to investigate conditions in the Philippines and report back on ways to improve the administration of the country. This report would have a significant impact on the way America viewed Puerto Rico and Cuba in turn. The first Commission’s report was a rejoinder to those who argued America had no place in the world: Should our power by any fatality be withdrawn, the commission believe that the government of the Philippines would speedily lapse into anarchy, which would excuse, if it did not necessitate, the intervention of other powers and the eventual division of the islands among them. Only through American occupation, therefore, is the idea of a free, self-governing, and united Philippine commonwealth at all conceivable. And the indispensable need from the

Sunday, August 25, 2019

Mediation Observation Paper Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2750 words

Mediation Observation Paper - Assignment Example The mediation case in focus involved James Nguyen, a student of Chapman law and who acted as the mediator between Robert and Swoboda who were the plaintiffs and Keith Mullens who was the defendant at the Corona Superior Court. Robert and Swoboda were couples who rented their house to Keith who upon vacation left the couple’s house in damaged state and was therefore sued for failure to pay for repair and rent of the previous month. However the disagreements, it became apparent that the plaintiffs and the defendant had never engaged in any conflict for the past five years that Keith rented the plaintiffs’ structure. All the parties were convinced and accepted to engage mediation process and Keith indicated that he would not be able to pay for the alleged damages and therefore requested that the plaintiffs drop the demands. On the other side, the plaintiffs held strongly that they could not drop the demands and the case was taken back to court where the plaintiffs were den ied their demands after long period of time. Effective mediation requires that the individual mediator follow certain sequential processes and procedures that will enable him/her comfort the parties and achieve utmost transparency of opinions and views. Usually, mediation process begins with introduction between the mediator and the individual parties and any other additional party present in the session(s). The introduction part is usually very critical as it determines the moods and emotions of the individual conflicting parties and allows the mediator an opportunity to employ other strategies to comfort the parties (Douglas and James 4). Introductory part of the mediation process requires the mediator use the most appropriate physical presentation to ensure that no individual party is frightened or threatened by the just intended process. According to Douglas and James, this stage needs to be accomplished with all parties who are located in different structures (6). In the introd uctory stage, the mediator clarifies the roles of each participant in the process and explains the rules that should govern the mediation process and the actual time frame for the process. The mediator will then acknowledge by reaffirming to both parties about the issues under determination or the actual cause for the mediation (Cohen 6). In his mediation practice, James Nguyen involved all necessary aspects introduction to ensure that nothing was left in doubt. In introducing my friend Abdul Sameer and I, James described us as his fellow law students who had come to particularly assess his progress and approach to the mediation process. James reiterated to the individual conflicting parties that we the third party had nothing to do with their discussion and therefore the parties had no reason to fear expressing their vies in transparent manner. It is at this level of mediation that James Nguyen informed the conflicting parti

Saturday, August 24, 2019

Criminology and legal psychology Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Criminology and legal psychology - Essay Example The most valuable thing I took with me from this experience was how the duality of law could be manipulated to serve one’s ulterior motives for the better or for the worse. The use of the Holocaust Exhibition to educate European citizens, as well as individuals worldwide on the historical implications resulting from the First World War is undoubtedly an invaluable resource. As noted on the exhibition website, â€Å"Taking as its starting point the turbulent political scene in Europe immediately after the First World War, the exhibition traces the rise of the Nazi party, how anti-Semitism as a Europe-wide phenomenon made a fertile seedbed for Hitlers anti-Jewish beliefs, the perversion of science to support Nazi race theory, the isolation of German Jews, the refugee crisis and the advent of so-called Euthanasia policies in 1939 († These policies point to the deeper issue that caused the Holocaust, namely the policies that lead law abiding citizens to perform acts of genocide As Staub says in Zimbardo’s work in the course notes, â€Å"Genocide was not perpetrated by evil people of extraordinary, demonic characteristics. Rather by ordinary individuals in extraordinary social circumstances (Staub, 1989; Zimbardo 2004).† All of this shows how detrimental corrupt laws enacted by those empower can lead to horrific occurrences disguised in the form of policy. The powerful impact these exhibits have on its visitors is telling in its own right. As further noted on the site, one visitor cited â€Å"Moved, deeply†¦ shocked. Although we all know the truth now, it is a shaking human experience to be confronted with it.† Another visitor noted that, â€Å"This powerful exhibit should act as a warning to our children.† My reaction to these exhibits was very similar to that of these visitors. I was appalled but also intrigued by the human nature and frailties in the legal system that allowed it to happen. The visitors

Friday, August 23, 2019

Financial Derivative Literature review Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words - 1

Financial Derivative - Literature review Example Experts state that market reactions are caused due to market reactions (Blanco, Brennan and Marsh, 2005). It is expected that default rates on bonds are possible due to market volatility, and as a result the cost of protection gets inflated on the bond values. The credit derivative markets during such a period had overreacted causing a contagion effect. The close relationship existing between the bond and CDS paves way towards the issue of estimating which market has the lead in the price discovery (Hull, Predescu and White, 2004). If the CDS market is leading, then it is expected that the bond market would adjust itself. In case, if the bond market is leading then the CDS market would simply follow the suit. Most researchers have opined that the impact of CDS upon the bond market is higher than that of the bond market upon the CDS. Innovations which occur in the CDS market are seen to spill over to the bond market. However, changes in the bond market impacts the CDS market in a much slower manner (Longstaff, Mithal and Neis, 2005). Nevertheless, during the crisis scenario it is seen that the influence of the CDS market upon the bond values is significantly slow and lees powerful as other market situations also impact the movement of the bond values. The relation between the two markets can be ascertained using statistical measures (Zhang, H. Zhou and H. Zhu, 2009). The main objective of the CDS derivative instrument is to cover the investor’s loss if the borrower fails to repay. Hence, both CDS and the bond depend upon the same determinants which are the probability of default on behalf of the borrower, the expected rate of recovery and the factors of risk aversion (Lipton and Sepp, 2009). Although the bond and the CDS market are interrelated deeply, their spreads are never the same. This can be understood through the statistical analysis of the spread. In a portfolio

Thursday, August 22, 2019

Decision-making Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 words

Decision-making - Essay Example sset Pricing Model or CAPM relates the returns on one individual security with that of the market and as such it considers the risk of the market as well as the risk of the individual security. So called beta is therefore the exact measure which shows the relationship between the risk and return of the individual security with that of the market by calculating the co-variance of returns on individual security with that of the market. CAPM also assumes that the investors are well diversified and they only attempt to reduce the systematic risk that is arising out of the market. As such beta is the measure which calculates this systematic risk and is always assumed to be 1 for the market as a whole. The above calculations indicate that the beta calculated through two methods is different from each other. Beta-1 is calculated through the traditional method of finding the covariance and variance and then taking the ratio of two whereas beta 2 is calculated through regression analysis by taking the slope of the % change in the returns of the market and the individual security. The differences in the value of the two betas may be attributed to the relative differences in the two methodologies. The published betas of two companies are 2.48 & 2.14 and are significantly different from calculated beta. (,2010. The above calculations indicate differences between the beta calculated and beta that has been published in various external sources. The changes or differences in the value of two betas may be attributed to different betas. The beta which has been calculated is based upon the closing price of the stock whereas published beta may have taken the adjusted prices of the shares while accommodating any dividends or splits. Thus the overall beta may be different from published sources if there exists a difference in calculations. The differences in the beta can also be attributed to the geared and un-geared beta based on the method of calculation. Un-geared

The Creation of a Common Market for Financial Services in the European Union Essay Example for Free

The Creation of a Common Market for Financial Services in the European Union Essay Of all the global achievements in the last 50 years, economic integration in Europe may be considered as the most notable of all. From a continent separated by war and differences in culture, Europe has proceeded to become an economic and political leader today. The formation of the European Union (EU), the accession of the 15 European countries to the Community, and the introduction of a single currency which were all deemed too difficult have all become realities, proving skeptics that there is hope for a united Europe. From the beginning, the idea behind united Europe centered on economic prosperity. While conflicts in European countries were political in nature, it was almost always related to resource allocation. The signing of the Treaty of Rome in 1957 signaled the start of a gradualist approach to building the European Union as we know today. By preventing the establishment of monopolies, enabling the creation of common policies and granting commercial privileges to the colonies of the Member States, the Treaty of Rome put into motion the progressive economic integration which in turn, led to the longer term objective of political union in the continent (Ocana 2003). The Treaty of Rome paved the way for the creation of a common market wherein persons, services and capitals can freely move across borders. Yet, despite the freedom of establishment set out in Article 43, the freedom to provide cross border services as provided by Article 49 and the free movement of capital espoused by Article 59 (European Council 1957), the focus in these early years were mainly on the abolition of tariffs and excise taxes. Following the recession in the early 1980s (also termed as eurosclerosis), the Heads of States have decided to complete the plans for an internal market. As early as 1985 the potential of a common market for financial services was already recognized. In the 1985 White Paper published by the Commission of the European Communities, it said: â€Å"In the Commission’s view, it is no exaggeration to see the establishment of a common market in services as one of the main preconditions for a return to economic prosperity†¦the liberalization of financial services will represent a major step towards Community financial integration and the widening of the Internal Market† (Commission of the European Communities 1985). This is a fact that the modern day European Commission (EC) still believes in. With more efficient allocation of capital, the Commission hopes to ensure long-term economic performance. More than 20 years after the publication of the 1985 White Paper, Europe is in economic turmoil. Critics have started pinpointing the flaws of creating the EU, and the Commission must again enumerate the advantages of an integrated financial market, as well as report on the developments aimed at this direction. What are the different steps made toward financial integration? What are the specific features of the liberalization program? What are the results achieved from these reforms? These are just some of the issues which will be discussed in this paper. What does a Single Market Look Like? While so many legislators talk about the Single Market for financial services, very few actually understand what it is, and what can be expected from it. In sum, however, a fully functioning unified market allows buyers and sellers of assets to deal with one another, regardless of the location of their systems and infrastructure. It allows market participants, both the intermediaries (brokers) and the end users, to raise funds and profit in all Member States without fulfilling additional licensing requirements. Financial institutions which legally operate in one Member State can open new cross border operations without needing to pay additional fees or acquiring new certification from the host country. These same institutions are also given access to all essential systems and infrastructures they will need to continue their operation (The Working Group in City of London 2000). All financial institutions duly licensed in their home countries can work as intermediaries in the financial market offering the same functions, products and services across all Member States. In the same manner, infrastructure providers are free to offer their services in any country which belongs to the EU (The Working Group in City of London 2000). Needless to say, a Single Market is a venue for competition and innovation. It enables Member States to take advantage of the opportunities offered by the 27 countries and 480 million people in the Community without worrying about the risks. It allows Member States to take advantage of the benefits of free trade, while at the same time erecting safeguards that can protect their own economy from increasing volatility which is a major characteristic of globalization. The Benefits of a Single Market According to the EC, the completion of a â€Å"single market [for] financial services is†¦a crucial part of the European Commission’s overriding objective of achieving more and better jobs in a more dynamic, innovative, attractive Europe† (European Commission 2010). Keep in mind that the financial market deals mainly with savings (whether individual or institutional) which can then be used as capital. With a Single Market for financial services, Member States can hope to achieve the following advantages (The Working Group in City of London 2000: pp. 7-8): †¢ Improved allocation of capital, due to the lower transaction costs and higher market liquidity. †¢ More efficient movement in the security market which allows savings to become investments. †¢ More innovative financial systems which lead to a diversified (hence, a more stable) portfolio of investments. †¢ More efficient financial transactions as brought about by the competition among financial intermediaries in the EU. †¢ Increased opportunity to take advantage of the economies of scale. In the 1985 White Paper, it was stated that in order for the internal market to become a possibility, firms and private individuals must have access to more efficient financial services. With open competition among financial institutions, they will be forced to reevaluate their processes so that restrictions to capital movements are kept to a minimum (Commission of the European Communities 2005). The White Paper also believed that more efficient financial transactions will reinforce the European Monetary System and ensure the stability of the exchange rate (Commission of the European Communities 2005). Even in those early days, it was already known that the free movement of capital coupled with greater financial freedom will enable Member States to enact sound economic policies, hence, promote economic stability. In recent years, the need for a Single Market for financial services has become even more important. With the improvement in technology came the increased access to knowledge and information, which in turn affected strategic decisions and competition. In order to survive a globalized economy, companies have to find more efficient processes so that they can take advantage of the economies of scale. And yet, even the creation of efficient processes will require capital. With lesser restrictions among EU countries, companies can now raise funds from any side of the Community. Aside from this, the high interest rates have led to the increase in the demand for high-yield securities and assets, but with the deceleration in productivity came the need to manage portfolios more actively. Investors have become more wary and will not release capital without the assurance of profit. With a Single Market for financial services, the EU has provided stability in portfolios because of the increase in the number of investment tools available in the Community. A Single Market for financial services allows capital to flow smoothly because it provides investors an attractive market where there are more opportunities to pool risk, as well as improved chances to profit. With the increase in the flow of investments in all financial institutions in the EU, businesses can have additional sources of capital which they can then use to expand their operations, and provide employment. The â€Å"achievement of the Single European financial market is the most crucial [factor] in creating the most competitive and dynamic knowledge-based economy in the world, capable of sustainable growth with more and better jobs and greater social cohesion† (The Working Group in City of London 2000: pp. 8). For citizens, a single market for financial services meant that the capability to open bank accounts in any country in the EU, buy and sell shares in foreign companies, purchase real estate – basically to find an investment with the best return. On the other hand, for companies, it means the ability to invest (and own) other European companies and play a big role in their management. The financial market is a global industry where global players seek international markets which will give the best advantages in terms of cost, profit, flexibility and liquidity. An integrated European financial market makes available a number of opportunities – from retail investors, to wholesale financial markets for global traders. Steps toward Financial Integration in the EU The move towards financial integration in the EU can be traced as far back as the 1970s with the release of the major directives in banking, insurance and investments. The first banking directive focused on the establishment of credit institutions within the Community. According to this directive, all banks operating in the Community which have plans of establishing operation on another country must obtain authorization from the supervisory body of the host country. At the time, European Community (EC) banks were subject to restriction, especially in the range of activities they can perform. Many of these restrictions are listed on the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS). Keep in mind, however, that this directive has been issued in the 1970s while the similar legal framework from the World Trade Organization (WTO) was released only in the 1990s. By 1989, a new banking directive was released. The second directive introduced a single banking license wherein the bank’s home country is responsible for checking the financial institutions’ overall solvency, and the fulfillment of minimum capital requirements. Once the bank was licensed in its home country, it can then expand its operations to other Member States without completing separate authorization requirements (Pasadilla 2008: pp. 3). Aside from these two directives, other directives affecting banking policies were released. Some of them were involved the harmonizing of accounting rules, the removal of exchange controls, the setting of minimum capital requirements, and the definition of banking activities. Integration in insurance and investment mirrors the same steps made in banking. Major directives were also released, each one amending the previous. The first directive in this sector paralleled the first banking directive wherein authorization procedures were outlined. In a subsequent directive, the home country control was enhanced and certain supervisory provisions were specified.

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

Who Is to Blame for the Underclass?

Who Is to Blame for the Underclass? The Underclass: Who is to Blame?   Upper class, middle class and working class; these are the traditional classifications of social classes in nearly all societies in the world. But, what if a group of people proves to be unable to fit into one of these social stratums and creates a need for establishing an additional lower class? In this case, one of the most prominent problems will inevitably surface. Such a problem was and still is a major issue that enters into the American society especially with the emergence of the ‘underclass’. This term that is generally used to refer to people â€Å"at the bottom of, or even below, the rest of society† (Alcock, 1997). However, some details about the underclass are still a subject of controversy. While some associate the underclass with those who could not integrate into the mainstream societies due to their behavior and different culture, others just ascribe the emergence of the underclass to certain structural and situational factors. In this respect, th e first part of this essay will discuss both approaches: the one that puts the blame on the behavioral characteristics of the underclass and the other which is oriented towards the structural process that led to the creation of the underclass. The following part will deal with blacks as a case of study. And the last part will cover one possible solution for this issue. Some sociologists argue that people belonging to the underclass are excluded from society due to their inappropriate attitudes, improper behavior and wrong choices. Adherents to this view agree that the underclass â€Å"includes only the undeserving poor† (Jencks, 1988), since this group of people often displays distinct behavioral characteristics that lead them to be â€Å"socially isolated from mainstream patterns of [society]† (Wilson, 1987). In this light, Ken Auletta (1991) divides the underclass into four elements stressing the boundaries that separate them from the rest of society. In his classification, he includes: â€Å"the passive poor, usually long-term welfare recipients, † the hostile street criminals†, â€Å"the hustlers† i. e. those who rely on underground economy and â€Å"the traumatized drunks, drifters, homeless shopping-bag ladies and released mental patients. † To these people, â€Å"violent crimes, drug abuse, teenage p regnancy [and] joblessness† (Sawhill, 1992) become distinguishing hallmarks. The underclass, in this respect, is depicted as living by a code of jungle (Marks, 1991); a code that is fueled by the breakdown of a paramount institution which is the family and characterized by the loss of any â€Å"tangible incentive to learn† (Murray, 1984). In this context, Murray points out the common issues that mark the underclass including: the breakdown of families, illiteracy and single-parent household. All these attributes not only set the underclass apart from the mainstream American culture but also make welfare dependency their preferred choice. For instance, the emergence of the underclass is often associated with â€Å"an ‘overgenerous’ [system] that encourages such a ‘dysfunctional’ behavior†(Heisler, 1991). Taking the example of unemployment, Lawrence Mead says â€Å"The problem is not that jobs are unavailable but that they are frequently unacceptable, in pay or conditions, given that some income is usually available from families or benefit programs (Mead, 1986). This means that underclass dependency on governmental support would create disincentives to work. Another causal factor of the existence of the underclass in the American society is the failure of the structure in providing a just society. In defining structure, sociologists analyze the complexities of social institutions and organizations in dealing with matters of integration and high trends of inequality. Hence, from a structuralist approach society is the one to blame for the emergence of an underclass. The American Sociologist William Julius Wilson (1987) argues that the ‘tangle of pathology of the inner-city’ is represented in structural factors: Among these inter-related factors, historical segregation and discrimination of the minority groups in America led to the emergence of large underclass communities in the cities. A persistent interaction between high poverty rates and rising level of residential segregation explains Segregation role in concentrating poverty. In their study of segregation in the U. S, Nancy and Douglas (1998) depicted an Apartheid-American style in dealing with minorities in Urban areas. Indeed, segregation has negative socio-economic impacts. Consequently, underclass was the result of profound structural economic shifts that have marginalized inner cities positions and displaced the industrial sectors that were supposed to provide employment for the minorities and for the working poor. (Darity, Myers, Carson, Sabol, 1994). This prevents the population from achieving its full potential in the labor market. Besides, Gender Discrimination is one key feature of the structuralist causation. The high rate of poverty among women may be viewed as the consequence of a patriarchal domination. Women were fighting to resist the exclusion in a society that has been historically dominated by men. Welfare programs have been designed in some ways to stigmatize public support for women. Indeed this tends to reinforce patriarchy. (Abramovitz, 1996) Moreover, social isolation was behind the inadequate human capital of the labor force that resulted in lower productivity and inability to compete for employment. (Darity, Myers, Carson, Sabol, 1994) William Wilson (1985) defines social isolation as follows â€Å"the lack of contact or a sustained interaction with individuals and institutions that represent mainstream society. † Indeed, urban poor suffer from the lack of assistance, resources and community safeguards. As a consequence, the difficult interaction between culture and behavior has produc ed an isolated-population from the labor economy. (Wilson, 1985) the isolation was linked to a growing concentration on poverty. Another major factor in the structuralist approach is that of Migration of the successful members of the community that leads to the reduction in social capital. (Wilson, 1987) This phenomenon essentially created a geographic polarization. Inner-cities are getting poorer and suburbs getting richer. The process of regeneration helped mobile individuals but was proved harmful for the ones who were not able to leave the urban areas. One perspective refers to the political factor adopted by Republicans (in America particularly) the welfare programs that have removed any desire to work, thus creating a culture of poverty and the underclass. Inner-city poverty is the unanticipated consequence of public policy that was intended to alleviate social problems but has, in fact, caused them to worsen in some ways. (Wilson, 1987). Public policies including federal aids and programs indirectly affected poverty. Public housing for example did not aim at improving or rebuilding slum dwellers but rather at eliminating poor housing (Gautreaux case in the 1970s) In an attempt to define the underclass, Time Magazine reported that it â€Å" is made up mostly of impoverished urban blacks who still suffer from the heritage of slavery and discrimination (1997). Because Blacks constitute the majority of the underclass, we chose to apply on them the two perspectives previously analyzed. According to the culture-of-poverty thesis, blacks â€Å"do not possess those traits or values that are conducive to individual achievement and success â€Å" (Zargouni, 2007). Minority groups, such as Chinese, Japanese and West Indians suffered from discrimination and yet they were able to â€Å"ris[e] to affluence† because of their â€Å"effort, thrift, dependability, and foresight that built businesses â€Å" (Sowell, 1981). Because these traits are absent within African-American’s culture, blacks remained â€Å"trapped† in the â€Å"same inner cities â€Å", other races were able to â€Å"escape† (Lemann, 1986). Lemann (1986)asserts that â€Å"the greatest barrier â€Å" for blacks is their â€Å"culture†. Within this same line, Chuch Robb suggests that the barriers of segregation and racism were abolished and it is time for blacks to get rid of their â€Å"self-defeating patterns of behavior â€Å" (in Jackson, 1988). Thus, according to this first perspective Black’s cultural traits are the reasons behind their failure in â€Å"some of the richest cities on earth â€Å" (Hamill, 1988). One major critique for this perspective is that the years following the Civil Rights Movement witnessed the rise of a black middle class (Wilson, 1990). That is, Blacks proved that when given equal opportunities and decent living conditions, they can defy the stereotypes and achieve success. Following the same line and in an attempt to distance himself from the â€Å"culture of poverty† thesis, Wilson (1990) insists that although blacks were living in poor conditions before the mid-twentieth century, unemployment, crimes and perverseness were not as prevalent as they are today. According to him these changes were due to two main reasons. First, many blacks lost their jobs in the manufacturing sector which was contracted and could not catch the new opportunities in the suburbs (Wilson, 1990). Second, the departure of the black middle class meant the removal of role models who used to show for the less advantaged that education is meaningful, that steady employment is a viable a lternative to welfare, and that family stability is the norm, not the exception (p. 56). In his assessment of the situation of blacks, Wilson does not deny that they have ghetto-specific cultural traits† (p. 137); but he acknowledges that they are but the consequences of unemployment and social isolation, rather than the reasons behind them. He also insists that these traits are not self- perpetuating and would disappear if faced with proper care (p. 138). The government’s reaction to the underclass was in the adoption of some welfarist measures. These policies were criticised by many who believe that they only encourage dependency. Goodman, Reed and Ferrara (1994) argue that welfare can only be successful if based on theâ€Å"- determination of the amount and type of aid case by case. The private sector â€Å"would be able to do so since it may reduce the level of assistance, or withdraw assistance altogether, if recipients do not show behavioral changes† (Goodman, Reed, Ferrara, 1994). We think that such a system would be more beneficial than the traditional welfare system for it encourages people to work hard to deserve and preserve the assistance they are getting. At the end of this research, it is worth to mention that Underclass is a major problem in the American society. Despite all the advancement and the principles on which this nation is built upon, the appearance of an underclass indicates that there is a notable failure in implementing the right measures to better the situation of minority groups. Blacks were chosen as a case of study in this report due to their high population and their difficult integration comparing to other races. Whether behavioral factors or Structural causes (Wilson, 1987) were behind the emergence of this distinct class, serious reforms should be adopted to overcome this phenomena. References Abramovitz, M. (1996). Regulating the Lives of Women: Social Welfare Policy from Colonial Times to the. Boston, MA: South End Press. Alcock, P. (1997). Understanding Poverty (à ©d. 2nd). Plgrave: Basingstoke. Auletta, K. (1991). The New Yorker. In C. Marks, Annual Review of Sociology. Darity, W. A., Myers, S. L., Carson, E. D., Sabol, W. (1994). The Black Underclass: Critical Essays on Race and Unwantedness. New York: Garland. Douglas, M., Nancy, D. (1998). American Apartheid: Segregation and the Making of the Underclass. Goodman, J. C., Reed, G. W., Ferrara, P. S. (1994). Why Not Abolish the Welfare State? Texas. Hamill, P. (1988). Breaking The Silence. Esquire. Heisler, B. S. (1991). jSTOR. Retrieved from Theory and Society: http://www. jstor. org/stable/657687 Jackson, J. (1988). Racism created the black underclass. In Poverty: Opposing Viewpoints. (D. Bender, B. Leone, Éds. ) Jencks, C. (1988). Deadly Neignborhoods. New Republic. Lemann, N. (1986). The Origins Of the Underclass. The Atlantic. Marks, C. (1991). Annual Review of Sociology. Rà ©cupà ©rà © sur Jstor: http://www. jstor. org/stable/2083350. Mead, L. (1986). From Beyond Entitlement. Murray, C. (1984). Losing Ground. Sawhill, I. V. (1992). Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society. Retrieved from Jstor: http://www. jstor. org/stable/986911. Sowell, T. (1981). Ethnic America. The American underclass: destitute and desperate in the land of plenty. (1997). Time Magazine Wilson, W. J. (1985). Cycles of Deprivation and the Underclass Debate. Social Service Review. Wilson, W. J. (1987). The Truly Disadvantaged. Chicago: University of Chicago Press Zargouni, C. H. (2007). Roots of american culture and identity : Connecting the present with the past. Tunis.

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

Myanmars Challenges Essay -- Burma

State building and the implementation of policy is a central process to the legitimacy of government worldwide. These critical facets of government institutions have been thoroughly challenged throughout Myanmar’s history, a country with an awful human rights record. In this essay I will focus on the last decade in particular, where Myanmar’s state capacity and political institutions have been challenged immeasurably. This essay will focus on the implications that pose a challenge to Myanmar’s state capacity and development. First, I will discuss the military coup d’Ã ©tat, which was followed by military junta heading the Burmese state for several decades. I will then examine the issue of internally displaced people and the resulting ethnic and religious conflict. Lastly, I will investigate the issue of drug trafficking and slave labour in Myanmar. State capacity is an enduring and central process for state autonomy. The state is famously defined by Sociologist Max Weber as the ’human community that claims the monopoly of the legitimate use of physical force within a given territory.’ Therefore, state capacity is the rule of enforcement: ‘the ability of states to plan and execute policies, therefore being able to enforce laws cleanly and transparently.’ The capacity of the state is central to the legitimacy of the state, which can be challenged and measured by a countries internal coherence, stability, collection of tax, and security of the state of the enforcement law. O’Neil continues to say a state is weakly institutionalised if it must exercise force in order to ensure compliance. A military junta has been in power in Myanmar since the coup d’Ã ©tat in 1962, which overthrew the government and opened the ‘Burmese road to Soci... ...: Routledge, 2008. Miller, Rebecca. Human Trafficking in South East Asia. in South East Asian Development Routledge, London, 2008. 126. The National Coalition Government of the Union of Burma (NCGUB) on Media Press on ‘ Saffron Revolution’. Accessed April 5, 2012 Pedersen, Morten (2008): Burma’s Ethnic Minorities. Critical Asian Studies, 40:1, 45-65. O’Neil, Patrick. Essentials of Comparative Politics. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 2010. Smith, Martin. State of strife: the dynamics of ethnic conflict in Burma Singapore: Institue for Southeast Asian Studies. 2007. Smith, Martin. Burma's Ethnic Diversity Anti-Slavery International 1994. 35-44. U.S. Department of State "Burma." International Narcotics Control Strategy Report. 2010. Academic OneFile. 5 Apr. 2012. P.170.

Monday, August 19, 2019

Lees Philosophy To Kill A Mock :: essays research papers

Nelle Harper Lee’s Philosophy on the Proper Treatment of Human Beings in To Kill A Mockingbird   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The 1930’s were a time in which blacks faced many hardships. It was a time in which the Ku Klux Klan had its peak. However, most importantly, it was the time when Nelle Harper Lee, the writer of To Kill A Mockingbird, was being raised. She was raised in a world where “niggers'; were the bottom class in one of the most powerful countries in the world. She was also being raised during the Great Depression, a time when the attacks on blacks were intensified, as they were the scapegoats of the immense downfall of the US economy. However, she was only a small, innocent child who believed in equality for all. Thus, Harper Lee expressed her disapproval over the treatment of blacks in her Award-Winning novel, To Kill A Mockingbird, through the eyes of a fictional character called Jean Louise Finch, better known as “Scout';.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Scout, the main character in the story, grew up in Maycomb County; a fictional town in Alabama inspired by the Monroe County, Harper Lee’s hometown. Scout’s father, Atticus Finch, was a defense attorney during the Great Depression. Just like everyone in Maycomb County, his economic conditions were very poor. Judge Taylor assigns him the task of defending Tom Robinson, a married black man accused of raping the eldest daughter of Bob Ewell, the head of a family that “…had been the disgrace of Maycomb for three generations.'; As the story progresses, Scout slowly becomes introduced into the world of hatred, unfairness, and racism that the 1930’s exposed. Nevertheless, since Scout still had both her innocence and naivete, due to her premature age, she completely expressed total disapproval towards the treatment of blacks during the time of her childhood. The author portrays this disapproval through Dill and Jem, Scout’s friend, and Scout’s brother, respectively, as shown here by Dill, “‘I don’t care one speck. It ain’t right to do ‘em that way. Hasn’t anybody got any business talkin’ like that—it just makes me sick.’'; Various characters’ reactions to the verdict emphasize Lee’s feelings toward racial injustice. During the Tom Robinson trial, Atticus could not have portrayed his evidence in a more professional and convincing manner. Unfortunately, Tom Robinson was found guilty by the jury and was sentenced to death. Atticus’s son, Jem, expresses his rejection to the unfair treatment of blacks by stating, “‘How could they do it, how could they? Lees Philosophy To Kill A Mock :: essays research papers Nelle Harper Lee’s Philosophy on the Proper Treatment of Human Beings in To Kill A Mockingbird   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The 1930’s were a time in which blacks faced many hardships. It was a time in which the Ku Klux Klan had its peak. However, most importantly, it was the time when Nelle Harper Lee, the writer of To Kill A Mockingbird, was being raised. She was raised in a world where “niggers'; were the bottom class in one of the most powerful countries in the world. She was also being raised during the Great Depression, a time when the attacks on blacks were intensified, as they were the scapegoats of the immense downfall of the US economy. However, she was only a small, innocent child who believed in equality for all. Thus, Harper Lee expressed her disapproval over the treatment of blacks in her Award-Winning novel, To Kill A Mockingbird, through the eyes of a fictional character called Jean Louise Finch, better known as “Scout';.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Scout, the main character in the story, grew up in Maycomb County; a fictional town in Alabama inspired by the Monroe County, Harper Lee’s hometown. Scout’s father, Atticus Finch, was a defense attorney during the Great Depression. Just like everyone in Maycomb County, his economic conditions were very poor. Judge Taylor assigns him the task of defending Tom Robinson, a married black man accused of raping the eldest daughter of Bob Ewell, the head of a family that “…had been the disgrace of Maycomb for three generations.'; As the story progresses, Scout slowly becomes introduced into the world of hatred, unfairness, and racism that the 1930’s exposed. Nevertheless, since Scout still had both her innocence and naivete, due to her premature age, she completely expressed total disapproval towards the treatment of blacks during the time of her childhood. The author portrays this disapproval through Dill and Jem, Scout’s friend, and Scout’s brother, respectively, as shown here by Dill, “‘I don’t care one speck. It ain’t right to do ‘em that way. Hasn’t anybody got any business talkin’ like that—it just makes me sick.’'; Various characters’ reactions to the verdict emphasize Lee’s feelings toward racial injustice. During the Tom Robinson trial, Atticus could not have portrayed his evidence in a more professional and convincing manner. Unfortunately, Tom Robinson was found guilty by the jury and was sentenced to death. Atticus’s son, Jem, expresses his rejection to the unfair treatment of blacks by stating, “‘How could they do it, how could they?

Sunday, August 18, 2019

Citigroup Inc. :: Business, Global Bank

This reflection paper analyzes Citigroup Inc’s initiatives to set funds aside for executives’ performance pay, how they are interacting with the media, and business tools that could improve the transparency of their compensation system. Citigroup is a global bank with its headquarters in New York, NY (Citigroup, Inc., 2011). Citigroup received a U.S. government bailout two years ago (Hester, 2009) and has been operating strongly since then. This June Citigroup announced that it will be putting 86 million for the quarter into paying bonuses to key executives. The announcement was made by Citigroup’s company spokesman Jon Diat (Scheer & Eichenbaum, 2011). The mandatory regulatory filing was filled out to where it addresses the possible recipients of the bonuses as merely ‘key’ employees—no names were given and the number of possible recipients was withheld as classified information (Scheer & Eichenbaum, 2011). A few possible recipient names were revealed to the media. Citigroup’s (Citi) compensation beliefs are good because they understand that executives need to be financially recognized for their achievements. The following quote is an example of how companies can fail to financially recognize employee’s achievements. â€Å"An employer may not fire a worker if this would violate an implied contract, such as a verbal promise, or basic rules of ‘fair dealing.’ For example, an employer could not legally fire a salesperson just because he or she had earned a bigger bonus under an incentive program than the employer wanted to pay† (Lawrence & Weber, p. 369, 2011). The quote above explains how a company can set up a compensation system and then fire employees that successfully reach the top pay within that compensation system. Executives may experience similar treatment from stockholders, with the exception that stockholders do not create the compensation system. Stockholders can exude massive public ridicule. If a corporation accepts the criticism of stockholders and organizations they may be viewed as wanting to fire the executive that has accomplished preset goals. Citi is keeping the some of the profit-sharing candidates’ names confidential. An important aspect of protecting the interest of stockholders is to keep the company as transparent as possible (Lawrence & Weber, 2011). Citi should reveal all names of the executives that may earn bonuses from the profit-sharing programs. Investors may want to know about who is and is not a part of the profit-sharing program; they may also want to know why the participants’ names are being kept confidential.

Saturday, August 17, 2019

Leo XIII: Rerum Novarum

1. What did Leo say about the poor people? The present age has handed over the working poor to inhumane employers and greedy competitors. (a. 6) He saw the working poor as needy and helpless, (a. 66) And they are insufficiently protected against injustices and violence. (a. 32) 2. What did he want the working poor to understand? He wanted the working poor to understand that the lowest in society cannot be made equal with the highest and that poverty is no disgrace. (a. 37) To suffer and endure is human. (a. 27) The working poor are told not to injure the property or person of their employers and not to forcibly the property of others. (a. 55) 3. What was the moral component of Leo's message? The message to the working poor seems to be aimed at calming and consoling the poor, encouraging them to accept their position in society without rancor and without harm to others. Leo sought to enlist the aid of the working poor in preserving good order. 4. What did Leo say to those who work with the poor? Leo XIII declared that the working poor must be cared for. Employers have clear moral obligations: workers are not to be treated as slaves; the dignity of your workers' human personality must be respected; do not use people as things for gain; do not oppress the needy or the wretched for your own profit. The approach to employers is on a high moral plane, but it is also very practical: you need your poor worker, so work with him harmoniously. It is immoral to treat workers unjustly, and it is also not in the best interest of ownership and management. 5. What was the message to the employers? Leo warns the employers against the pitfalls of being wealthy; pointing out that wealth does not end sorrow and that it is a hindrance to eternal happiness. In view of eternity, what counts is not how much we have but how we use what we have, and we will have to account to God for our use of wealth 6. What did the Pope say to the wealthy? The wealthy are told that their goods are for their perfection and the benefit of others, and they are encouraged to share their goods when they see others in need: when the need is extreme, the demand is of justice: otherwise, the demand is of charity. 7. What was R.N's teachings of unions and strikes? The encyclical comes down strongly in favour of unions, stating that their increase is to be desired. (a. 69) The immediate object of unions is the private advantage of those associated, so that workers are to use their unions to secure increase in goods of body, soul and prosperity. (a. 71) The principal goal of unions is moral and religious perfection. (a. 77) The message about preserving good order is clear and unmistakable, but so is the message about standing up for rights. Leo XIII wanted the working poor to protect their interests, to make demands, to press their claims, and the principal means for doing this was the formation of unions. 8. What did Leo say about working conditions? Wages should never be less than enough to support a worker who is thrifty and upright. (a. 63) Work should not be so long that it dulls the spirit or that the body sinks from exhaustion. (a. 59) The factors in the establishment of hours are listed as: the nature of the work; the circumstances of time and place; the physical condition of the workers. (a. 59) 9. What was his stand on private ownership and property? Private ownership must be preserved inviolate. (a. 23) Must be regarded as sacred. (a. 65) It is wrong for ownership to be limited to a small number of people, and private property must be spread among the largest number of population. (a. 65) And a more equitable division of goods. (a. 66) 10. How did Leo see the role of government? The purpose of government is to cause public and individual well-being. (a. 48) The government must protect the community and it's constituent parts. (a. 52) Protect equitably each and every class of citizens. (a. 49) Give special consideration to the weak and poor. (a. 54) This special care should include the working poor. (a. 54) Improve the condition of workers. (a. 48) Safeguard the well-being and interests of workers. (a. 49) Protection of the goods of the worker's soul. (a. 57) The government's intervention in matters of wages, hours, and working conditions should be avoided. (a. 64) The government does not have the authority to forbid unions. (a. 72) It can oppose, dissolve and prevent unions when their objective is at variance with good morals, justice, or to it that there are no strikes. (a. 56) It should seek to remove the causes of strikes. (a. 56) Government must permit freedom of action to individuals and families. (a. 52) Government should give public aid to families in extreme difficulty. (a. 21) Â · Briefly summarise the popes intention and purpose for the Rerum Novarum. The Popes intention was his conviction that the present ages has handed over the working poor to inhumane employers and greedy competitors. He wanted to help the working poor by setting these rules. These rules help people to know their roles and obligations when dealing with work.

Friday, August 16, 2019

Greek Influence on English Language

Indirect and direct borrowings Since the living Greek and English languages were not in direct contact until modern times, borrowings were necessarily indirect, coming either through Latin (through texts or various vernaculars), or from Ancient Greek texts, not the living language. Some Greek words were borrowed into  Latin  and its descendants, the  Romance languages. English often received these words from  French. Their phonetic and orthographic form has sometimes changed considerably.For instance,  place  was borrowed both by Old English and by French from Latin  platea, itself borrowed from Greek ( ) ‘broad (street)'; the Italian  piazza  and Spanish  plaza  have the same origin, and have been borrowed into English in parallel. The word  olive  comes through the  Romance  from the Latin word  oliva, which in turn comes from the Greek (elaiwa). [1][2]  A later Greek word,   (bouturon)[3]  becomes Latin  butyrum  and eventually Engl ish  butter. A large group of early borrowings, again transmitted first through Latin, then through various vernaculars, comes from Christian vocabulary:  bishop  < episkopos  Ã¢â‚¬Ëœoverseer'),  priest  < (presbyteros  Ã¢â‚¬Ëœelder'), and  church  <  ? (kyriakon). [4]  In some cases, the orthography of these words was later changed to reflect the Greek spelling:  e. g. quire  was respelled as  choir  in the 17th century. Many more words were borrowed by scholars writing in post-classical Latin. Some words were borrowed in essentially their original meaning, often transmitted through classical Latin:  physics,iambic,  eta,  necromancy. A few result from scribal errors:  encyclopedia  < ‘the circle of learning', not a compound in Greek;  acne  (skin condition) < erroneous lt; ‘high point, acme'. Others were borrowed unchanged as technical terms, but with specific, novel meanings:  telescope  < †˜far-seeing' refers to an  optical instrument for seeing far away;  phlogiston  < ‘burnt thing' is a supposed  fire-making potential. But by far the largest Greek contribution to English vocabulary is the huge number of scientific, medical, and technical  neologisms  that have been coined by  compounding Greek roots and affixesto produce novel words which never existed in the Greek language:  utopia  (1516, ‘not' + ‘place'),  zoology  (1669, ),  hydrodynamics  (1738, + ),  photography(1834, + ),  oocyte  (1895, + ),  helicobacter  (1989, + ). Such terms are coined in all the European languages, and spread to the others freely—including to Modern Greek. Traditionally, these coinages were constructed using only Greek morphemes,  e. g. metamathematics, but increasingly, Greek, Latin, and other morphemes are combined, as intelevision  (Greek – + Latin  vision),  metalinguistic  (Greek + Lati n  lingua  + Greek - + Greek - ), and  garbology  (English  garbage  + Greek - . These  hybrid words  were formerly considered to be ‘barbarisms'. Many Greek affixes such as  anti-  and  -ic  have become  productive  in English, combining with arbitrary English words:  antichoice,  Fascistic. Most learned borrowings and coinages follow the classical Latin  Romanization system, where ‘c' represents ? etc. , with a few exceptions:  eureka  (cf. heuristic),  kinetic  (cf. cinematography),krypton  (cf. cryptic). Some Greek words were borrowed through Arabic and then Romance:  alchemy  ( or ),  elixir  ( ),  alembic  ( ),  botargo  ( , and possibly  quintal  ( < Latincentenarium (pondus)). Curiously,  chemist  appears to be a  back-formation  from  alchemist. In the 19th and 20th centuries a few learned words and phrases were introduced using a more or less direct transliteration of Ancient Greek (r ather than the traditional Latin-based morphology and dropped inflectional endings),  e. g. nous  ( ),  hoi polloi  ( ). Some Greek words have given rise to  etymological doublets, being borrowed both through an organic, indirect route, and a learned, direct route into English:  anthem  and  antiphon  ( ,frantic  and  frenetic  ( ),  butter  and  butyr(ic)  ( ),  bishop  and  episcop(al)  ( ),  balm  and  balsam  ( , probably itself a borrowing from Semitic),  blame  and  blasphemy( ),  box  and  pyx(is)  ( ),  choir  and  chorus  ( ),  trivet  and  tripod  ( / -),  slander  and  scandal  ( ),  oil,  olive,  oleum, and  elaeo-  ( );  almond  and  amygdala( );  dram  and  drachma  ( );  paper  and  papyrus  ( );  carat  and  keratin  ( , -). [5][6] Finally, with the growth of tourism, some words reflecting modern Greek ulture have been borrowed into Englishà ¢â‚¬â€many of them originally borrowings into Greek themselves:  retsina,  souvlaki,taverna  (< Italian),  ouzo  (disputed etymology),  moussaka  (< Turkish < Arabic),  baklava  (< Turkish),  feta  (< Italian),  bouzouki  (< Turkish),  gyro  (the food, a calque of Turkish  doner). ————————————————- [edit]Greek as an intermediary Many words from the  Hebrew Bible  were transmitted to the western languages through the Greek of the  Septuagint, often without morphological regularization:  pharaoh  ( ),  seraphim( , ,  paradise  ( < Hebrew < Persian),  rabbi  ( ). ————————————————- [edit]The written form of Greek words in English Many Greek words, especially those borrowed through the liter ary tradition, are recognizable as such from their spelling. Already in Latin, there were specific conventions for borrowing Greek. So Greek  ? was written as ‘y',   as ‘? ‘,   as ‘? ‘,  ? as ‘ph', and  ? as ‘c'. These conventions (which originally reflected pronunciation) have carried over into English and other languages with historical orthography (like French).They make it possible to recognize words of Greek origin, and give hints as to their pronunciation and inflection. On the other hand, the spelling of some words was refashioned to reflect their etymology:  Middle English  caracter  became  character  in the 16th century. [7] The Ancient Greek diphthongs   and   may be spelled in three different ways in English: the digraphs  ae  and  oe; the ligatures  ? and  ? ; or the simple letter  e. Both the digraphs and ligatures are uncommon in American usage, but the digraphs remain common in British usag e. Examples are: encyclopaedia /encyclop? ia / encyclopedia, haemoglobin / h? moglobin / hemoglobin, oedema / ? dema / edema, Oedipus / ? dipus / Edipus (rare). The verbal ending  - is spelled  -ize  in American English and  -ise  or  -ize  in British English. In some cases, a word's spelling clearly shows its Greek origin. If it includes  ph  or includes  y  between consonants, it is very likely Greek. If it includes  rrh,  phth, or  chth; or starts with  hy-,  ps-,  pn-, or  chr-; or the rarer  pt-,  ct-,  chth-,  rh-,  x-,  sth-,  mn-,  tm-,  gn-  or  bd-, then it is Greek, with some exceptions:  gnat,  gnaw,  gneiss.One exception is  ptarmigan, which is from a  Gaelic  word, the  phaving been added by  false etymology. The word  trophy, though ultimately of Greek origin, did not have a  ? but a  ? in its Greek form, . ——————————â⠂¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€- [edit]Pronunciation In clusters such as  ps-,  pn-, or  gn-  which are not allowed by  English phonotactics, the usual English pronunciation drops the first consonant (e. g. psychology) at the start of a word; comparegnostic  [n? st? k] and  agnostic  [? gn? st? k]; there are a few exceptions:  tmesis  [tmi? s? s].Initial  x-  is pronounced  z. Ch  is pronounced like  k  rather than as in â€Å"church†:  e. g. character, chaos. Consecutive vowels are often pronounced separately rather than forming a single vowel sound or one of them becoming silent (e. g. â€Å"theatre†Ã‚  vs. â€Å"feat†). ————————————————- [edit]Inflectional endings and plurals Though many English words derived from Greek through the literary route drop the inflectional endings (tripod,  zoology,  pe ntagon) or use Latin endings (papyrus,  mausoleum), some preserve the Greek endings:  tetrahedron,  schema  (cf. cheme),  topos,  lexicon,  climax. In the case of Greek endings, the plurals sometimes follow the  Greek rules:  phenomenon, phenomena;  tetrahedron, tetrahedra;  crisis, crises;  hypothesis, hypotheses;  stigma, stigmata;  topos, topoi;  cyclops, cyclopes; but often do not:  colon, colons  not  *cola  (except for the  very rare technical term of rhetoric);pentathlon, pentathlons  not  *pentathla;  demon, demons  not  *demones;  climaxes, not  *climaces.Usage is mixed in some cases:  schema, schemas  or  schemata;  lexicon, lexicons  or  lexica;  helix, helixes  or  helices;  sphinx, sphinges  or  sphinxes;  clitoris, clitorises  or  clitorides. And there are misleading cases:  pentagon  comes from Greek  pentagonon, so its plural cannot be  *pentaga; it ispentagons  (Greek   / pentagona). (cf. Plurals from Latin and Greek) ————————————————- [edit]Verbs Few English verbs are derived from the corresponding Greek verbs; examples are  baptize  and  ostracize.However, the Greek verbal suffix  -ize  is productive in Latin, the Romance languages, and English: words like  metabolize, though composed of a Greek root and a Greek suffix, are modern compounds. ————————————————- [edit]Statistics The contribution of Greek to the English vocabulary can be quantified in two ways,  type  and  token  frequencies: type frequency is the proportion of distinct words; token frequency is the proportion of words in actual texts.Since most words of Greek origin are specialized technical and scientific coinages, the type frequency is conside rably higher than the token frequency. And the type frequency in a large word list will be larger than that in a small word list. In a typical English dictionary of 80,000 words, which corresponds very roughly to the vocabulary of an educated English speaker, about 5% of the words are borrowed from Greek directly, and about 25% indirectly (if we count modern coinages from Greek roots as Greek). citation needed] ————————————————- [edit]References 1. ^  This must have been an early borrowing, since the Latin  v  reflects a still-pronounced  digamma. The Greek word was in turn apparently borrowed from a pre-Indo-European  Mediterranean  substrate(see also  Greek substrate language), although the earliest attested form of it is the  Mycenaean Greek  e-ra-wa  (transliterated as â€Å"elava†), attested in  Linear B  syllabic script—see  e- ra-wa, Mycenaean (Linear b) – English Glossary 2.   Palaeolexicon, Word study tool of ancient languages 3. ^  Carl Darling Buck,  A Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages  ISBN 0-226-07937-6  notes that the word has the form of a compound + ‘cow-cheese', possibly a calque from Scythian, or possibly an adaptation of a native Scythian word 4. ^  church, on Oxford Dictionaries