Thursday, February 28, 2019

Foreign Study

Study Confirms Accuracy of UE Leak Detectors * Tagsultrasonic inspection UE Systems announces a major step in independently verifying the accuracy of its UE3000 outpouring detectors to estimate compressed style relief valve flows. Gary Mohr, President of UE Systems, explains, We always mat up that our leak detector did a good job estimating the size of stock leaks by using our ultrasonic intensity measurement approach. But to witness out that occupation Power USA, one of the most highly regarded and see compressed straining consulting groups in the country, had taken it upon themselves to run head-to-head comparisons of air flow estimates made using our UE3000 constitution and Air Powers own engineering- and experience-based approach was gratifying. Air Powers study results cerebrate the two approaches came within 5 percent of each other in the aggregate estimate of air flows for five different air studies.Having the contrariety in the size estimate of any individual lea k unremarkably fall within 2 cfm is truly amazing and great parole for our customers. Hank van Ormer, president of Air Power USA, explains the unusual effort by his company, Over 70 percent of our business is performance-based, which means we only stand by paid to the extent we deliver energy savings that can be verified by an independent evaluator. As such, we have greatly increase our measurement capabilities so we know which customer projects will produce the retribution we need and whether the independent evaluation is on target. We have always taken pride in our in-house training for our senior air auditors and air specialists to mensurate leak flows. In a number of cases, Air Power has reviewed leak estimates made by our competitors, where we have found that our flow estimates were less than half(prenominal) for the very same leaks. We feel vindicated when the post-project flow measurements associated with those leaks confirm our real estimates. With the UE3000 system , we can now get that same level of accuracy hurried and at a lower cost.In addition, the repeatability of the UE3000 flow estimates is an important bonus that provides credibility when we have independent evaluators checking our work. Information about the UE3000 leak detection system can be obtained from UE Systems Inc. at800-223-1325or emailprotected com. Information about Air Powers study on Leak Flow mind or about its comprehensive consulting services to improve compressed air systems can be obtained from Keith Jenkins at740-862-4112oremailprotected com.

Company Analysis: Wal-Mart Essay

Wal-mart Stores Inc is a joined States found confederateship started in 1962 in Arkansas. The attach to has grown exponentially to hand branches in umpteen parts of the land. It operates in three formats United States ground segment, abroad/international segment, and Sams Club. through and through the three segments, the go with owns and runs stores ( sell and discount), chains of supermarkets and supercentres, and websites affiliated with the connection. In those stores and supermarkets, one can buy foodstuffs, beverages, dairy products, and meat, among galore(postnominal) another(prenominal) foodstuffs, electronics, accessories, cloth ware, and many other things.More than retail, the connection offers financial services through banks and electronic payments. The social clubs retail units are estimated to be roughly 10,800 all spread in virtually 27 countries all over the world. Wal-mart Stores Inc. has been listed in top 10 of the worlds 500 biggest companies by For bes (Fishman 16). An analysis of the company reveals that it is growing remarkably well in spite of the turbulent economic times beingness experienced in America and many parts of Europe. Corporate and note outline formulated by the company puddle enabled it transcend many challenges that have littered its path of progress.This paper leave identify the companys current burster and review its strategies and objectives. The financial status of the company will be analyzed by using financial rations, income data, and balance sheet data. Additionally, internal strengths and weaknesses will be analyzed using trick up model. External opportunities and threats will be analyzed using PESTEL and Porters basketball team forces model analysis. Based on those analyses, the mission and strategies of the company will be revised.Corporate and business strategies that will enable the company master its mission and objectives will be developed and discussed, and appropriate recommendations made. Actions needed to hold the strategies that will be formulated will be outlined. Appropriate languish term objectives in areas of marketing, human resources, finance, operations, and information systems will be developed. The results evaluate will be specified including pro forma financial statements. Lastly, procedural recommendations will be made for strategy review and evaluation. Specific measures to be utilized will be documented.Mission, Objectives, and Strategies Wall-mart growth in recent years has seen it travel by other companies to become the biggest retailer in the world. With a node home exceeding 200 zillion nodes annually and over 2. 5 million employees, the companys sales are expected to surpass the $2 billion achieved in 2012 (Roberts, Bryan, & Natalie 14). Low damages and provision of high quality customer care service continue to be the drivers of the companys growth. The strategies have revolved around attracting and retaining customers by low pric ing and great customer care services.The low pricing is achieved by constant pressure on suppliers to lower their prices and redesign all services and products. The companys mission is summarized in one sentence, Save people money so they could get going better (Roberts, Bryan, & Natalie 34). Their objective is thus to lower the prices of their commodities so that customers are contented and satisfied. The low price strategy is premised on the knowledge that large volumes distribute at a low price will compensate for the displace price. By putting customers first, the company has survived tough economic times.Through its concern strategy, transitions have been achieved efficiently. In recent years, the company has formulated a reality affairs strategy that is meant to help it penetrate red-hot markets, in the United States and Internationally. Political climate inevitably determines the success of a company. For that reason, Wall-mart has commissioned a political proceeding co mmittee that is tasked with the responsibility of networking with politicians that will help the company realize its goals in various places around the world. The company has short and huge term objectives geared towards maintaining growth.The objectives are aligned to the strategy of low price and customer satisfaction. In the short term, Wall-mart intends to achieve a 95% train of customer satisfaction. In the long term, the company plans to stock all merciful of merchandise for diverse customers retailing at low prices. In 2012, Wall-mart dunked five central strategies for growth (Roberts, Bryan, & Natalie 24). The first strategy, developing our people, recognizes the supremacy of customers and empowered employees in any business venture. It aims to develop existing talent within the company by use of development programmes.The company also seeks to recruit new talents that are exceptional so as to remain competitive. Towards this strategy, the company plans to partner with W alton Institute and enhance its leadership series so as to vex the next generation of leaders for the company. There are plans to improve form and inclusivity in the hiring process. The company has thus committed to champion affirmative action by hiring women and other marginalized groups and investing in their career development. The second strategy is driving the productivity loop.The company aims to lower operation cost so that prices can be reduced further. The third strategy, labeled Wining in globular ecommerce seeks to harness the power of information technology in driving growth. The launch of WalmartLabs is the precursor to this strategy and there are plans to replicate it in other countries such as Britain and Canada. With a growing online population, the company plans to expand its forepart in social media so as to reach as many people as possible. The fourth strategy involves reinvigoration of the customer-centered culture.The growth of the company has been drive by the company and as indicated earlier, there is a strategy to nominate a 95% customer satisfaction. The last strategy is directed towards remembering of legitimacy and maintaining a good relationship with the society and community around the companys premises and beyond. Dubbed Leading on social and environment issues, the strategy will drive Wall-marts corporate social responsibility activities. Through philanthropy, educational support, and women empowerment, the company intends to promote and maintain its corporate integrity.

Wednesday, February 27, 2019

Managerial Economic Decision Making Essay

From the e-Activity, appraise how personal credit line leaders use theater directorial stintings to make business decisions indicating how profits may be usurpationed. break up the principal-agent problem to determine how the descent could be less adversarial. nominate provide for your rationale.ECO 550 hebdomad 1 DQ 2 Fundamental Economic ConceptsPick a recently released unassailable or wait on. Then, determine the factors that must be evaluated regarding the products supply and regard. go bad how these factors repair the decision to supply the product indicating the significance of each in the decision-making process. Using the same product prototype above, analyzing how the risk tolerance factors wanton in supplying the good or attend to and how this should influence worrys decisionsECO 550 Week 2 DQ 1 Demand AnalysisFrom the e-Activity, if you were a manager in a tobacco caller, analyze the snap fastener of demand for tobacco products. Evaluate the factors invo lved in making decisions about determine tobacco products indicating which would be the virtually influential. Using the same scenario above, hold forth how the elasticity influence the short-term and long-run decisions of the company and the impact to the decision do connect to profitability.ECO 550 Week 2 DQ 2 Estimating Demand return an deterrent example when it would be appropriate to conduct a time-series or cross sectional data. cover the potential problems that may arise with your example and identify strategies for minimizing the impact of the potential problems. Discuss the meaning of the arrested development coefficient of the independent variable(s) and how it could be utilise to estimate the elasticities of each of these variables. Discuss how managers use the elasticities measurements to make managerial decisions.ECO 550 Week 3 DQ 1 Business and Economic ForecastingFrom the e-Activity, develop a regression equation using the data youcollected from your resear ch. Use the regression equation to focus the demand for the product you chose for the next three periods. measure out what the results of the regression equation tells managers and how it is likely to impact decisions made related to maximizing profitability. Imagine you be a manager for the good or service used above. From the results of the regression equation, suggest strategies to either maintain demand (if an append over three periods occurs) or improve demand (if a return over three periods occurs). Provide support for your recommendationsECO 550 Week 3 DQ 2 Managing in the Global EconomyEvaluate the relationship between the European Euro crisis in 2012 and the American saving. mensurate how this affects American businesses and decisions made by mangers related to sustainable profitability. Provide examples with your chemical reaction. Aside from maximizing profits, assess the factors that managers must take in when making the decision to outsource or integrate forwar ds or backwards considering which factor would be most influential for decision-making.ECO 550 Week 4 DQ 1 Production EconomicsFrom the e-Activity, determine the environmental variable most likely to affect the short-run issue over the next 12 months. Determine what managers can do to prepare for the possible change in short-run production. Pick a real or fictitious business. fabricate a scenario around this business in which a manager would conciliate to either stop operations in the short-run or overtaking out of business in the long run. Provide a rationale with your responseECO 550 Week 4 DQ 2 Cost AnalysisPick a good or service. Distinguish between the short-run and the long-run production and cost function for that good or service. Discuss how price plays a role in short-run and the long-run decisions and how managers are likely to answer in each case. Using the same good or service from above. Identify the fixed and variables costs are for the good or service. found up on the costs identified, recommend whether to produce or non produce the good or service. Provide a rationale with your responseECO 550 Week 5 DQ 1 Applications of Cost TheoryImagine you are a manager of a chemical company. An accident has occurred in which chemicals leaked into the ground pissing nearby, the community of interests is unaware. judge the costs involved in cleaning up the water immediately (confessing) versus hiding the fact and possibly paying more(prenominal) in the future. Discuss the impact on profitability in both situations. From the scratch e-Activity, assess the factors involved in conducting a break-even abridgment. Determine the conditions that may comprise for a manager of this good or service may root to move forward with operations even with the initial costs of operations is more than the potential revenueECO 550 Week 5 DQ 2 Prices, proceeds and StrategyPick a good or service you are familiar. Speculate how the price for that good or service may pass been set and how well this price maximises profit for the company and determine what shifts the company should made in its determine outline. Provide support for your recommendations. From the hour e-Activity, discuss how the company you selected should increase its competitive stance in the marketplace and how prudence would fulfill the recommendations. Provide specialized examples to support your responseECO 550 Week 6 DQ 1 MonopoliesFrom the initial e-Activity, imagine this company acting as a monopoly was to have a new competitor arrive in the marketplace. esteem how the monopoly would likely change its price strategy to compensate for the new competition. From the first e-Activity, speculate how the monopolist could be more efficient in the long-run considering new competition has entered the marketplaceECO 550 Week 6 DQ 2 OligopolyFrom the second e-Activity, assess the marketing and pricing strategies, for example rebates, to determine the goal(s) of the marke ting and pricing strategies for one of the companies you researched. Make one recommendation for changes that the company should make to get around maximize profits. The Internet has made shopping for airline tickets efficient for the consumer. As a result, the industry overall is price sensitive. Suggest how the airlines can maximize profits while avoiding price wars.ECO 550 Week 7 DQ 1 mealy TheoryPlease respond to the following Demand for airline tickets fluctuates end-to-end the year, which affects the price of an airline ticket. Suggest the type of game that may be most appropriate for a specific airline to play to train the differences in demand and elasticity and the resulting impact on profitability. Provide support for your reply. From the first e-Activity, constitute a short-term and long-term pricing strategy for the product or service you researched including how the strategies would be implemented. rate how your proposal in conclusion maximizes profitsECO 550 W eek 7 DQ 2 Pricing TechniquesFrom the second e-Activity, propose the new target market segment for the product and its accompanying pricing strategy (for example, bundling and couponing). Provide a rational for why you notion the new target market and pricing strategy would be triple-crown and the likely impact to the profitability of the firm. The pharmaceutical industry often has the lavishness of implementing pricing strategies that appear high to consumers. Take a position on the fairness of the industrys approach to pricing pharmaceutical products including religious offering an alternative strategy that may be more palatable to consumers. Provide a rationale with your positionECO 550 Week 8 DQ 1 assureFrom the e-Activity, propose a methodology for assessing the risk in business contracts. Assess the economic impact this methodology may have for the makeup. Analyze a situation in which both parties entering into a contract could benefit, economically or otherwise, from sl ightly ambiguous language contained in the contract. Provide specific examples to support your response.ECO 550 Week 8 DQ 2 Organization FormAnalyze the potential downfalls of any team effort and make at least(prenominal) one recommendation for minimizing risk. Provide specific examples to support your response. Evaluate the organization form that would be most efficient in minimizing the principal-agent problem. Provide a rationale with your responseECO 550 Week 9 DQ 1 Government patternFrom the e-Activity, take a position on whether more government regulating is needed in the banking industry. Support your position with evidence or examples. Provide an example of how government convention is either constraining or alter for a particular company indicating the impact to the operational efficiency of the company. Discuss how your response impacts maximizing shareholder wealthECO 550 Week 9 DQ 2 Antitrust and LicensingImagine how managerial decisions may be easier or more diffic ult if there were no antitrust restrictions in the U.S. Provide an example to support your response. The IT industry is full of patents. There are more or less companies, referred to as patent trolls, whom purchase these patents in hopes of making money by enforcing patents against alleged(a) infringers. Determine the impact of government regulation against patent trolls. Identify who wins and who loses if regulation was adoptedECO 550 Week 10 DQ 1 Capital InvestmentsWith the current U.S. economy in a weakened state, many companies are reluctant to implement any detonating device improvements or capital expenditures in fear of the economic uncertainty that exists that may negatively impact the cash flow of the organization. Assess the impact of this behavior on productivity, cost efficiency, diversification of assets, or impact to future cash flows that may emerge if companies continue this mindset indicating the long-term risk to profitability. Provide an example or scenario to s upport your response. Analyze the challenges that companies take care in entering global markets. Identify the potential impact to capital budgets in making the decision to move into a global marketECO 550 Week 10 DQ 2 Cost-Benefit AnalysisProvide a cost-benefit analysis for a company which has to decide whether to hire more staff or hire temporary workers to meet production schedules. Determine how managers would use your cost-benefit analysis to make this decision. Conduct a cost-benefit analysis of obtaining a graduate degree. Assess both the short-term and the long-term costs and benefits to determine why some people obtain the extra education while others do not Copy this link to your browser and downloadhttp//

Hero and Beowulf

Epic heroes possess patchy traits that other characters lack. Among these are animal(prenominal) stance, bravery, and soundness. These attributes aid the heroes with their journeys finishedout the epic. Beowulf exemplifies each of these traits somewhere is the narration. They aid him in his battles with monsters and spare him to be a leader to his people. These traits cause Beowulf to stand out among his peers and endear him to the reader. Beowulf is definitely a perfect example of an epic hero. Beowulfs tangible strength, bravery, and wisdom characterize him as an epic hero.Beowulfs physical strength is revealed to the reader through his amazing feats and his unbelievable battles with mystical creatures. In lines 91 and 92 it states that Beowulf was the strongest man in the world. These words come from the Geats who are barbaric people to array with. The fact that they speak so highly of Beowulfs strength is a will to its truthfulness. After Beowulf arrives in Denmark he q uickly travels to Herot to prepare for his battle with Grendel. In the lines following 307 it is stated that Grendel was instantly seized by Beowulf upon trying to clutch him.This is a feat that no man was able to accomplish before Beowulfs arrival. Beowulfs strength is also sh experience in his battle with Grendels mother. In lines 465 and 466 it states that Beowulf was able to throw the she-witch to the ground. This moreover reemphasizes Beowulfs great physical strength. Finally, Beowulfs strength is shown in his battle with the firedrake. Beowulfs battle with the flying dragon occurs when he is an old man. The fact that Beowulf is still able to bolt down the dragon shows the reader the extent of his great strength.Beowulfs great physical strength is peerless of the characteristics that make him an epic hero. The split second characteristic that Beowulf embodies is bravery. In the beginning of the story it is made obvious to the reader that Beowulf has led a glorious youth. He preformed feats that no other man would dare try. As soon as word of Grendel reaches the shores of Geatland, Beowulf makes it his personal mission to defeat the monster. During the battle with Grendel on lines 295 and 296, Beowulf lies patiently on the floor and waits for Grendel to seize him.He also chooses not to use weapons to disturb the monster. When pursuing Grendels mother on lines 307 and 308, Beowulf jumps into the lake without a second thought. As he sinks to the bottom the thoughts crossing his mind are of the battle to come and the nimbus he will gain. During the battle with the dragon Beowulf continues fighting alongside Wiglaf plain after all others abandon them. One of the main sources of Beowulfs bravery is his notion that God is in control. Beowulf believes that he has no control over his own death.With this knowledge Beowulf can storm into battle with no hesitations. Beowulfs bravery is the second characteristic that makes him an epic hero. The final charact eristic that sets Beowulf apart as an epic hero is his wisdom. From the beginning of the story Beowulf is painted as a advisable individual. On the long journey from Geatland to Denmark Beowulf serves as the boat captain. He is the front line of his fellow Geats and is shown as the leader. During his battle with Grendel, Beowulf displays superior fighting ability and beset strategy.By pretending to be asleep, Beowulf surprises Grendel and gains the upper hand in the fight. When Beowulf is dragged into the she-witches lair he quickly realizes that his weapons have no effect. Beowulf sees the giants sword hanging on the circumvent and draws it. Using the sword he severs the head of Grendels mother and wins the battle. When Beowulf was faced with an foreign condition, he used his wisdom to guide him through the battle. Eventually Beowulf became the linguistic rule of Geatland. His years of fighting had given him the wisdom to effectively lead his people.There he would rule until his return to Denmark and his final battle with the dragon. Beowulfs strength is the third smell that defines him as an epic hero. Beowulf is wiz of the most popular examples of an epic hero. His physical strength, bravery, and wisdom set him apart from all other warriors. Beowulf was able to defeat enemies that no other man would challenge. Even though Beowulf was eventually off in battle, he died never knowing defeat. This is an accomplishment that few heroes make. Beowulf represents one of the most notable epic heroes in history.

Tuesday, February 26, 2019

Hobbes vs. Thoreau

Thomas Hobbes book, Leviathan and Henry David Thoreaus essay, Resistance to elegant presidency could not be to a greater extent opposed when it comes to go outing at the amicable subscribe from a political philosophy viewpoint. On the whiz hand, Hobbes of importtains that hu homophilenessitys utmost obligation is to submit oneself to the representation of the self-reliant republic. Thoreau, on the other hand, argues that under specific circumstances, it is hu gayitys craft is to resist the situate. This paper each(prenominal)ow for argue that Hobbes does not succeed in establishing our obligation to submit to the sovereigns agency.Instead it is Thoreau whom is constitute that in sealed circumstances we ar obliged to resist the State. The two main issues with Hobbes basis in Leviathan regarding the sovereign authority stem from his explanations of the Laws of Nature and the power of the administration. In Thoreaus Resistance to well-bred Government, these two is sues atomic number 18 more adequately sourceed. Before establishing the reasons why Thoreaus views on the obligations of the citizen to the soil ar more correct than Hobbes, it should be noted that Thoreaus essay, Resistance to civilised Government was produce 198 years after Leviathan.While Hobbes wrote Leviathan during the English Civil War, Thoreau wrote Resistance to Civil Government as an abolitionist during the time of the slavery crisis in young England and the Mexi nominate-the Statesn war. Therefore the differences in social context of the two scarpers are drastic. Not only was Leviathan regarded as one of the earliest works containing social contract theory, Hobbes himself is regarded as one of the key figures in the English Enlightenment, otherwise kn admit as the Age of Reason.This context within which Hobbes thrived, and within which Leviathan was published is significant, because the philosophical method upon which Hobbes based Leviathan is modelled after a ge ometric proof, founded upon offset principles and established definitions. In this model, each tilt makes cultures based upon the previous melodic phrase. Hobbes cute to produce irrefutable political philosophy in Leviathan by creating a model based on geometry because conclusions that are derived by geometry are vatical to be indisputable.How of alone time Hobbes book is outlying(prenominal) from indisputable, and much of its logic is not tout ensemble sound. This is evident in a number of servicemannequins, but most bad are the Laws of Nature and the power of the political sympathies. In lodge to remedy justify why Hobbes does not completely succeed in establishing the obligation multitude have to submit to the sovereigns authority, a brief compact of Leviathan is necessary. In Leviathan, Hobbes sets out on an exploration of human reputation, which crimsontu every(a)y leads him to the conclusion that an absolutist state, where on the whole(a) power lies withi n the hands of the sovereign authority, is necessary.The reason that Hobbes feels absolutism is necessary is what he refers to as the state of nature. The state of nature is used to explain the inherent qualities in man that makes him suffice the way he does, outside of the boundaries and limits imposed by social law. For Hobbes, the state of nature consists of stingy men who will inevitably turn to violence in their quest to satisfy their own selfish needs. Therefore, because all plenty are inherently rough in the state of nature, all are also equal because no someone is above or less(prenominal) capable of violence than anyone else.To the argument that some are physically stronger than others, Hobbes retorts that even those who are stronger are still vuln seasonble when sleeping. In this way, though all are equally violent, all are also equally vulnerable. However, man is also sane, and so in response to this vulnerability, mans selfish desire to check off his own life abo ve all else, will lead them to put their faith into the social contract. The basis upon which the social contract is made necessary, in other words, the state of nature, is what ultimately produces the Leviathan.Hobbes believes that in launch to fixate their own lives, people will automatically submit all of their freedom into the hands of the sovereigns authority. One of the first aspects of Hobbes work that undermines his, mostly logically-sound Leviathan, concerns the Laws of Nature. Hobbes awaits to take it for granted that all the people in a single state would agree with one another to submit all of their power to one dogmatic entity, on the basis that they will go out it is in the outdo interest of their security.As professor Ian Johnston says, If human beings are the like sheep, I dont see why they need a ruler if human beings are like wolves, I dont see how they will tolerate a ruler. If, as Hobbes suggests, the state of nature is anarchy, then what aspect of natur e drives all people to act a commonwealth? In this respect, it appears that Hobbes contradicts himself, for he proclaims that man is brutish, violent, and only concerned with self-interest, however he is also reasonable liberal to form a social ontract in which his own ease and cheery living is secured. In light of the latter(prenominal) characteristics of man that Hobbes describes, where man is rational enough to participate in such a social contract, the need of submitting oneself entirely to the sovereign authority is unfounded and too extreme. The second main issue with Leviathan concerns the power of the government. Hobbes fails to explain why people would swan an authority made up of other people, no different from themselves.If every person knows that their own inherent violence and selfishness is what necessitates supply rule by an authoritative figure, would they not doubt the authority, assuming that the corruptness inside of them extends to said authority as well? Hobbes does not seem to consider this issue worthy much in-depth consideration, for he does not believe that the sovereign authority would ever put the people in a situation where they need to agree themselves from the governing powers. According to Hobbes, the state will remain efficient because it recognizes its colony upon the work of the citizens.In Hobbes words, the private interest is the same with the public. The riches, power, and honour of a milkweed butterfly arise only from the riches, strength and reputation of his subjects. For no king can be rich, nor glorious, nor secure, whose subjects are either poor, or contemptible, or too anaemic through want, or dissention, to maintain a war against their enemies. However, the consequences on a persons ability to produce wealth for a coarse is not the only concern for a state in which all the power rests within the hands of a sovereign authority.Hobbes answer does not reach any further into the incorrupt or human rights o f the citizens, which are much more vulnerable to being infringed upon in an absolutist state. Hobbes neglects to address this because he believes that the state would not attack these rights based on the event that it would potentially produce chaos, which is the exact opposite of what the sovereign authority is meant to do. It is stool that for Hobbes, the dangers of a tyrannical sovereign are more appealing than the absence seizure of any sovereign, or in other words, a society left-hand(a) to the state of nature.While having some form of government, as opposed to rampant violence, is preferable, it is unessential for the citizens to relinquish all freedom to the authority of the sovereign, as Hobbes suggests. It would have been unthinkable for Hobbes to predict the political evolution of modern states. However his description of the benefits of the absolutist state hint at modern examples of states where all the power has been concentrate into a single, sovereign authority , leading to the extreme corruption that Hobbes believed it would eradicate.The 20th deoxycytidine monophosphate is full of examples of this however one that particularly exemplifies the dangers of total submission to the state is Fascist Italy, ruled absolutely by Benito Mussolini from the early 1920s to the mid(prenominal) 1940s. Instead of aiding the state and its people, Mussolini created an illusion of what the common good really was, in tack to enforce his own, absolute power. This lead to a significant go down in security and loss of some human lives, which seems to indicate that submitting all power to the state, can lead people back into Hobbes state of nature, instead of out of it.While Hobbes endorsement of absolutism may have solemn aims for humanity, when looked at from its primal and organic intentions, often absolutism results in the violent enforcing of rules or ideologies upon people, which is in itself a loss of security, and form of inhumane chaos. In a react ion to the rampant slavery in America during the nineteenth century and the Mexican-American war, Thoreau wrote the essay Resistance to Civil Government, hoping to encourage people to trust their own consciences over the rule of the law enforced by the government.Thoreau believes that mans outmatch service to ones own country paradoxically takes the form of resistance against it, if one feels that the government is supporting unjust or abominable laws. Subverting to the government, no matter what, or out of the necessity of obligation is to the injury of the state and society, according to Thoreau. Instead, it is better to work to build a better one in the long term, even if that means chaos or anarchy in the form of revolution n the short-term.Though Thoreaus views seem much more modern than Hobbes, Thoreau does doubt the effectiveness of democracy, or kinda the reform of a government from within the government. Believing that voting and petitioning for miscellany to be ineffi cient, Thoreau feels that one cannot truly see the government for what it is when one is working with it, and therefore one also cannot effect change when working with the government. In sharp contrast to Hobbes views on the voice of the government, Thoreau not only proclaims, that government is best which governs least, but even going so far as to say, that government is best which governs not at all. This is an example of where get under ones skining the middle ground between Hobbes and Thoreau is useful. While Hobbes may be correct that some form of government is necessary to a level of order within the state, Thoreaus reasoning for why the government can be interfering can be found in modern example of politics. According to Thoreau, the government is used by a certain conference of people to impose on others for their own personal gains. In this way, the government aids the advantage of those who control the state while impeding the success of those who are imposed upon.T his view on the government can find itself exemplified in specific aspects of the American government. Though the role of the government is to secure the safety and rights of all its citizens equally, many had dubbed the 20th century as an era of corporatism for America, securing only the interests of companies. Corporatism, in terms of politics, is when wealth is used as a tool by corporations to sway the government in the direction of their own private interests. The overwhelming dominance of corporations can cattle ranch beyond politics, into many aspects of society.There are a number of negative effects of corporatism for the common man, such as pervasiveness on works unions, the increase in taxes access out of citizens pockets in order to provide direct outlays, the subsidizing of unsubsidized jobs, the erosion of legality within commerce, etc. Thoreau would have agreed with this notion of corporate America for he believed the government to be like a machine, in which sleaz iness is an inevitable component. Thoreau did not intend to demonize the American government, but rather to shed light on what he felt was a total lack of agency or usefulness.This example establishes a modern mannikin for Thoreaus argument that the government is not infallible, and how the role of the government sometimes necessitates resistance. As Hobbes would state, it is a natural part of being human to look out for ones best interest. However, like his views on the role of the government, Thoreaus view on the nature of men appears to also be more correct, in light of current or historical politics. In other words, chaos is not always best dealt with by being replaced by subservience, but by resistance and a change in ideological structure.Another current example of the validity behind Thoreaus argument can be found in the Arab Spring. The Arab Spring refers to the movement of uprisings that arose and spread across the Arab world in 2011. It led to many revolutionary outcomes , such as the first free Tunisian election in October the Egyptian president Mubarak being displaced by a pro-democracy movement the toppling of dictator Gadhafi, pocket of Libya, and the removal of the ban on Libyan political parties and the authoritarian leader of Jordan being forced to replace his government.None of these movements would have been possible without peoples willingness to fight to bring some of the power away from the government, and into their own hands. As if often the case with political philosophy, both Hobbes and Thoreaus views are best when aspects of both theorists are interpreted and combined. When the absolutist nature of the government Hobbes argues for is taken away, his belief that a governing entity is required for maintaining a certain, and desirable, level of order becomes more valid.However in order to ensure that the rights and of citizens are protected, Thoreau is correct in arguing that resistance to an unjust government is the only way to ensu re a just government. However, between Hobbes Leviathan, and Thoreaus Resistance to Civil Government, the latter is more successful in establishing a sound view on the social contract. Thoreaus advocates the evolution, and not destruction of the government.Therefore his argument that the government should be one that is capable of improvement based on the needs of the people, and his argument that people should embrace chaos if it means a just and moral reform of the government succeeds more than the arguments of Hobbes. Bibliography Bird, Alexander. Squaring the Circle Hobbes on Philosophy and Geometry. ledger of the History of Ideas. 10. 1 (1996) 217-231. Germino, Dante. Italian Fascism in the History of Political Thought. midwestern United States Journal of Political Science. 8. 2 (1964) 109-126. Hobbes, Thomas. Leviathan. London Penguin Books, 1968/1651. Johnston, Ian. Four Problems in Theory. On Hobbes Leviathon. Created December 2002. Accessed November 2012. Keller, Ever. In the service of truth and victory Geometry and rhetoric in the political works of Thomas Hobbes. Prose Studies History, Theory Criticism. 15. 2 (2008) 129-152. May, Larry. Ethics in the History of Western Philosophy. New York MacMillan/St. Martins Press, 1990. Owen, Judd J. The Tolerant Leviathan Hobbes and the Paradox of Liberalism. Polity. 37. 1 (2005) 130-148. Schmitter, Philippe C. Still the Century of Corporatism? The Review of Politics. 36. 1 (1974) 85-131.Thoreau, Henry David. Resistance to Civil Government. The Picket Line. Work written 1894. Accessed October 2012. Turner, Jack. Performing Conscience Thoreau, Political Action, and the acknowledgment for John Brown. Sage Publications, Inc. 33. 4 (2005) 448-471 Woods, Thomas E. The Cultural Costs of Corporatism How Government-Business tacit consent Denigrates the Entrepreneur and Rewards the Sycophant. First Principles ISI Web Journal. Accessed November 2012.

Classification of Fish

Whitney East Mr. Beall talk 1200 October 24, 2012 Outline Topical Classifying slant Specific Purpose To inform my hearing about the different sortings of fish. Central Idea Fish are classify by their different characteristics which sorts them into different classes want Agnatha, Chondrichthyes, and Osteichthyes. Introduction I. Classification of liveliness things helps people to understand how living organisms may or may non be related to each other. A. The system of classification we use straightaway was invented 200 years ago by Carl Linnaeus.B. Carl Linnaeus system of classification groups organisms by their characteristics or features they get down in common. II. According to the book Vertebrate biota by ORR Robert Fish, mammals, reptiles, birds, and amphibians are classified together as vertebrates because they all make an internal back os. III. In researching this particular topic, I learned that the most all important(p) characteristics used in fish classification are the type of beat in their skeleton in the cupboard, the gill structure, the number and shape of fins, and the type of scales. IV.Now I ordain introduce you to the characteristics and the three different classes of fish. Jawless (Agnatha), Cartilaginous (Chondrichthyes), and pinched Fish (Osteichthyes). Body I. The Agnatha class is the oldest group, similar to fish but with close to different characteristics. A. As explained in The Evolution of Vertebrate Design, certain characteristics like inadequacying jaws is what classified fish to this class. 1. The Agnatha class lacks an internal bone skeleton, jaws, and paired fins. 2. Instead of jaws, they use up peak toothed mouths called cyclostomic. Which they use to eviscerate blood from the side of their prey. . They have a smooth, scale less come up which is soft to the touch. B. There are two living groups of Agnatha the lampreys and crone 1. Lamprey have a single abaxial nostril, a pineal eye, three fins (anterior, post erior, and caudal fin), and a great row or circular gill pouch openings. They make a living being a parasite that eventually kills the prey they latch onto. 2. Hagfish have long eel-like bodies, no eyes, no true fins, a single nostril, up to eight-spot barbels (like whiskers/tentacles for fish) and have rows of horny teeth used to grasp nourishment and draw it in. II.Chondrichthyes fish today include both fearsome predatory animal characteristics and harmless characteristics. A. As explained in Vertebrate Biology, all Chondrichthyes lack true bone. 1. The Chondrichthyes fish have full cartilage skeletons. 2. They have teeth that are made of calcium which grow in rows passim the fishs life. 3. They have a regular pattern of fins and in that respect external skin is entirely cartilaginous. B. Sharks, skates, and rays make up the Chondrichthyes class. 1. Sharks have pointed snouts and crescent shaped mouths with several rows of sharp triangular teeth.They have louvre gills on ea ch side that have individual gill slits shown externally. 2. Skates are rounded to diamond shaped. They have large pectoral fins extending from the snout to the bastardly of their tail. The mouth and gills are on the underside of their bodies. Skates are bottom dwellers and block their prey by dropping down on their prey from above. 3. Rays stinker be classified into the following groups electric rays, sawfish, skates, and many families of rays that have elegant whip like pursue. III. The Osteichthyes (bony fish) is the largest class of vertebrates with over 20,000 species.A. Stephen Savage states in the book Fish that, Osteichthyes have skeletons made of bone, flat scales, and gills. 1. Bony fish have a much stiffer skeleton because it is reinforced by calcium salts. 2. Bony fish also have acute beholding unlike other classes of fish 3. Bony fish have a special organ called a swim blatter housed under their bony skeleton is a gas filled chamber that allows the fish to remain afloat(p) in the water. B. Tuna and Seahorses are examples of bony fish (Osteichthyes) 1. The tuna is intrepid in the middle and tappers to points at both ends.The tuna had two nearly spaced dorsal fins on its back. The tuna is generally metallic downhearted blue color on its sides and silvery on its underside. 2. The seahorse has a heavy bony armor which makes them poor swimmers. They mostly anchor themselves with their tails to things like seaweed or other kinds of plants. They have a transparent dorsal fin on its back that propels them forward. Conclusion I. An animal is not a fish unless it has all the right characteristics II. No matter how different fish are, most fish share several basic characteristics fins, gills, scales, and hatch babies from eggs. III.Fish classification is sometimes confusing and difficult, but it is a useful way of schooling about different groups of fascinating fish around the world.Bibliography Animal Planet. N. p. , n. d. Web. 23 Oct. 2012. <h ttp//animals. howstuffworks. com/fish/fish-info5. htm>. ORR, ROBERT T. VERTEBRATE BIOLOGY. FOURTH ed. PHILADELPHIA W. B. SAUNDERS, 1976. Print. Radinsky, Leonard B. The Evolution of Vertebrate Design Leonard B. Radinsky. cabbage University of Chicago, 1987. Print. Savage, Stephen. Fish. Austin,Texas Raintree, 2000. Print. Wallace, Holly. Classification. Chicago Heinemann Library, 2000. Print.

Monday, February 25, 2019

Language Arts Lesson Essay

Allyssa Satin Capucillis Biscuit and the Nest (2008) which is destiny of the Biscuit Phonics Fun series get out be manipulationd in this lesson to teach run-in Arts to Grade 1 level students.This lesson aims to abide the Sunshine State Standards which are to make students (1) identify the rifles of vowels in printed dustup (2) apply letter- laboured knowledge to decode phonetically regular words speedily and accurately in isolation and in context (3) retell the important events and identify the reference works and setting in a story (4) edit for remedy engagement of common spell out patterns and conventional spelling of high frequence words and for correct use of capital letters for the pronoun I and good nouns and (5) communicate effectively when relating experiences or retelling stories heard or demand.After the teacher reads aloud the story to the class, the students will perform the succeeding activities. First, students will be paired off and each pair will compl ete a story frame which goes this mode. The story takes place in ________. A character in the story is ________who ________Another character in the story is ________who ________. A chore occurs when ________. After that, ________and ________. The problem is solved when ________. The story ends with ________. Second, the students will complete a Word Sort. They will get and divide a sheet of news report into two columns.At the top of the first column, they salve vowel sound /e/ and at the second column, not vowel sound /e/. Then, students select words from the story and write these in the columns. Third, students will gain a Picture Match. They are to read the words below the go for and tell whether it is a pen or a pin, mien or men, leg or league, nit or net, rid or red, tin or ten, etc. Fourth, students will describe their dearie or a pet they would like to have (if they do not have one yet) in committal to writing. They need to write 3 to 5 sentences. Lastly, they will ind ividually secernate to the class a story of their own pet or individual elses pet.The students will be assessed through the following assessment tools (1) Students writing development will be assessed through their use of capitalization and use of appropriate punctuation marks in their written output in the first and fourth activity. (2) Students grammar skills are evaluated when they are able to correctly write the correct setting, character, or event in the story frame and when they properly use subject-verb agreement in their descriptions in the fourth activity as well as in their stories in the last activity.(3) Students spelling skills will be assessed through a written spelling assessment to be given after the second and third activity. The teacher will read aloud ten words with the short(p) vowel sound /e/ and ask the students to write them on a piece of paper. Another way to assess their spelling skills is through their written stories in the fourth activity. The spellin g pattern that the students will be taught in relation to the story is the short vowel sound /e/. Word examples of the short vowel sound /e/ are egg, fell, nest, get, help, etc.Throughout the activities, the students will use terce cueing systems in order to arrive at comprehension. These cueing systems are semantic, syntactic and graphophonic systems. The semantic system refers to language features that bring about meanings to the reader. This is used in the classroom to make students know and understand the correct meaning of a word. The syntactic system includes the inter kin of the words in a sentence and the sentences in a text. When students are able to complete the story frame activity, they use the syntactic system.The graphophonic system includes the spelling and sound structure of the language and the relationship of these two. This will be taught to the students by demonstrating how words are pronounced base on their spelling or word patterns. References Capucilli, A. S. & Schories, P. (2008). I Can take up Phonics Biscuit and the Nest. New York Harper Collins. Florida Center for Instructional Technology. (2009). Florida K-12 Reading and Language Arts Standards. Retrieved April 10, 2009, from http//etc. usf. edu/flstandards/la/new-pdfs/elp-1. pdf.

Film Noir to Neo Noir

murphy 1 Rachel Murphy Professor Charlotte E. Ho tumefy Film 2700 12 November 2012 Word Count 1411 Film Noir to Neo-Noir A Shift in Cultural Tides Film noir of the 1940s captivated audiences by means of its distinct form of storytelling. Strongly twistd by German Expressionism, these charters have a definitive look and style that still resonates with modern audiences today. Like new(prenominal) classical Hollywood genres, cinema noir want to bring to light tensions tangle deep down society, namely those that affected work force following World fight II.Neo-noir involves pay a great deal less solicitude to societal commentary. Like photo noir of the past, neo-noir elevates style over narrative however, the genre has seen profound changes in regards to narrative, the fade of the femme fatale, and the prevalence of onscreen violence due to shifting heathen tides. In observing examples of film noir and its contemporary version, neo-noir, it is clear several elements in r egards to the style and over all told feel of these films have virtually remained the same by means ofout the years.In Nicolas Winding Refns neo-noir, Drive, a sense of otherworldliness is portrayed through several night eyeshots, intense shadows, and an overall dark rather downtrodden pettishness to the film. The scenes in the film take place at night and constantly in an urban setting. All of these elements be Murphy 2 highly regular of classic film noir as advantageously as German Expressionism. Drives narrative unfolds with surprisingly little dialogue. Instead Refn centre scenes on the mood, further strengthening the style of the film. Similarly, Curtis Hansons L. A.Confidential keeps with traditional film noir in elevating the style of the movie above its narrative. This is done through the to a great extent emphasis of the urban cityscape. As the title suggests, Los Angeles, is a major luck within the film. The peppy, orange-filled paradise portrayal of L. A. in the films rise scene sharply contrasts the corrupt, crime-ridden town shown throughout the rest of the film. In addition, voice-overs and flashbacks, typical elements of film noir, are extensively used. The genre has seen great changes in regards to its companionable commentary, however.Noir films of the 1940s strongly reflected the social climate of the time. In several respects, film noir can be seen as the male equivalent to melodrama. Just as women dealt with the crisis of femininity in post-war years, men also struggled with their masculinity as well as adjusting to their new roles in an ever-changing society. After World state of war II, many Americans, especially men who had experienced the atrocities of war firsthand, took on a more cynical outlook on the world. Film noir of the 1940s sought to bring these feelings of closing off and changing attitudes to light.Like many men returning from the war, the heroes were disillusion and often very isolated. In many respects, their fate is predetermined. In Tay Garnetts The bearer Always Rings Twice, the audience gains a sense that arse Garfields character, Franks, fate is already sealed as currently as he first plots, and eventually carries out the murder of Coras married man. This action clearly serves as a marker in the down(prenominal) spiral of Franks biography. Similarly, in Billy Wilders Murphy 3 Double Indemnity, Fred MacMurrays character, Walter, irrevocably alters the course of his life when he gives in to Phylliss pleas to murder her husband.In both of these instances, the motivation lavatory this clearly immoral acts is lust. cardinal protagonists seem or so supporterless against these forces. Both films also end with little doubt as to the fate of the protagonists. In The Postman Always Rings Twice, the film ends with Frank awaiting his punishment on death row. Similarly, Wilders Double Indemnity ends with Walter, critically hurt from a gunshot wound inflicted by Phyllis, confessing his role in her husbands murder. This clearly reflects upon the attitudes of males during the 1940s as helpless against the imposing forces of an tyrannous society.Neo-noir films differ from their film noir counterparts because they are no longer reflective on social and cultural tensions. This is simply because the tension is not as general or heavily snarl in todays society. In the ending of Refns Drive, the nameless driver, though stabbed in the abdomen, clearly lives. It left hand wing up to the viewer to decide what kind of life he leave alone lead in the future. In Hansons L. A. Confidential, the future of the city is somewhat unclear, but both protagonists in the film are met with at to the lowest degree somewhat happy endings.The male protagonists in neo-noir films are also a great deal more strong-willed. Their actions, though at times extreme, are seen as confirm to the viewer and made by the protagonist alone. Unlike earlier noir films, the protagonists are at least somewhat in control of their future. This turn within the genre clearly reflects changing attitudes within society, as the helplessness and isolation men felt after the war is no longer felt on such a large scale. Murphy 4 The influence of culture on the content of noir films is especially unmingled in the disappearance of femme fatale in neo-noir films.The 1940s marked a major shift in gender roles with the start of World War II. As men left for war, women took up jobs in the workforce and in factories in order to help with the war effort. This brought about a new sense of independence for women. When men returned home from the war, however, this shift was not necessarily seen in a confident(p) light. The emergence of the femme fatale in film noir clearly reflects that in the eyes of men, womens changing roles in society often presented a threat to comprehend masculinity as well as established gender roles of the day.The femme fatale of noir films is invariably portrayed in a negative light. She is in most cases seen as the major driving force behind the protagonists tragical end. Furthermore, the protagonist is usually helpless against the advances of these women. Femme fatales, such as Cora in The Postman Always Rings Twice and Phyllis in Double Indemnity, are roughly always met with an end even more bleak than that of the protagonist. In these two films, the femme fatales are both killed with little thought. Neo-noir films, however, approach female characters in a much more favorable light.The relationships between protagonists and these women are based on sleep with, rather than unmingled lust. Thus, the actions of the protagonists appear often more justified. This can be accredited to the changing cultural tides since the 1940s. Womens independence is generally no longer seen as a threat to male masculinity and thus is virtually extinct thematically in neo noir films. This is especially evident in Drive as well. The nameless drivers love intere st, Irene, is characterized by her innocence rather than her sexuality. Murphy 5 Even in L. A.Confidential, Lynn, a prostitute, has a relationship with one of the protagonists, however, the relationship is based on love rather than lust. Film noir arguably would not translate well to modern audiences if not for its integration of onscreen violence. Like German Expressionism, 1940s film noir drew a definitive reception of discomfort and mental inquietude from its audiences. In Double Indemnity, the scene in which Phylliss husband is bump off is brief and little is shown. The audience is shown only Phylliss cold, detached reflectivity while her husband is murder next to her in the passenger seat.In the 1940s, filmmakers didnt necessarily need to show Phylliss husband being murdered in order to elicit a strong psychological reaction from audiences. With the abrogation of the Hays Code, however, audiences have become somewhat desensitized to the mere implication of violence. L. A. Confidential and Drive both use violence as a means of eliciting this same reaction. Perhaps the most memorable scene in Drive occurs in an elevator where the driver, in order to shelter himself and Irene, not only kills a man, but proceeds to unleash all of his anger by stomping the mans head into a gruesome, flaming(a) pulp.In L. A. Confidential, numerous murder scenes and uncomfortable police interrogations illustrate how violence is presently used in neo noir to elicit the strong emotional and psychological discomfort that typified 1940s noir. Certainly the strongest influence on the evolution of film noir has been societal and cultural changes throughout time. These changes have served, however, to maintain film noirs relevance with contemporary audiences while still keeping with specific attention to the overall feel of the film and high level of stylization.

Power of Suppliers Essay

A nonher force is power of providers. Power of the suppliers is important as it pass on affect the industry. In airline industry, the power of suppliers is quite high since at that place ar only two major suppliers which are Airbus and Boeing hence in that location are not many choices to airline industry. Nevertheless, the global economic crisis has exceptional the new entrant and also reducing the upgrade of planes in the speedy future. However, both suppliers provide al intimately same standard aircraft and hence the displacement to Air Asia is low.The supplier of airline companies is the fuel supplier, food supplier, merchandise supplier and aircraft supplier. Other supplier like foods supplier and fuel supplier, the confines of the provide must be based on the market condition. Hence, the supplier cannot attach too much of its price or risk losing long term business with the aircraft companies. Besides that, Airasia has high switching speak tos. Most of Airasias aircr aft are Airbus models. Previously, the company used Boeing models, which they lease it and the company had since phased out most of the models and substitute with Airbus.If Airasia is to switch to Boeing again, then the cost will be high. This is because training cost for employees to suit the aircraft features must be provided. Furthermore, the technology used by Airbus is the most advanced, thus Airasia must rely to the Airbus engineers to do maintenance of the aircrafts and seek advices. if the Airbus does not to cooperate with Air Asia, Air Asia will not have no suppliers to do the maintenance. nThus, bargaining power of suppliers is strong.

Sunday, February 24, 2019

Public Facilities

cosmos facilities in india take a crap sustain more than in these recent years. Our coarse is progressing very devalued like a person climbing dissolute on either mountain peak. In this scenario indians are raised with m some(prenominal) public facilities such as transport facilty, communication facility, social facility , etc, entirely amongst all discipline facility is the most pre occupied in them. As you all know fostering plays a very crucial roles in our day to day career and even if the large numbers are not educate then these other facilties become of no use. people are considerably been provided with these facilities but some people may not use them properly.You bay window see this in numerous newspaper or in any media and even we see them in our daily life such as some peoples have the robes to dirt the public bus or you can see the tangible life example in your school. in your school some stinking students untides classroom and broke or plant designs on desks and tables. thus , ultimately i would like to say that we essential not have to bring down public facilities in our country as such india is a dandy fast develoing country which leave behind currently become much stinting than it is now, before it will happen, our indian political science is trying the best to provide us facilties that can help us to be stable in our day to day life. o that s all balwant , hope this will help you, cheers public facilities in india have become more than in these recent years. Our country is progressing very fast like a person climbing fast on any mountain peak. In this scenario indians are provided with many public facilities such as transport facilty, communication facility, social facility , etc, but amongst all education facility is the most pre occupied in them.As you all know education plays a very crucial roles in our day to day life and even if the peoples are not educated then these other facilties become of no use. people are well been provided with these facilities but some people may not use them properly. You can see this in many newspaper or in any media and even we see them in our daily life such as some peoples have the habit to dirt the public bus or you can see the real life example in your school. n your school some bad students untides classroom and broke or make designs on desks and tables. thus , lastly i would like to say that we must not have to destroy public facilities in our country as such india is a great fast develoing country which will soon become much economical than it is now, before it will happen, our indian government is trying the best to provide us facilties that can help us to be stable in our day to day life. so that s all balwant , hope this will help you, cheers


Non-CSD beverage Non-CSD beverage cytosine and Pepsi are attacking these categories themselves, each trying to become a be beverage company. Will this approach lead to brand dilution? Do oscillation risk becoming a less profitable job if they do not extend the brand? No good answers yet to these questions Pepsi, so far, has had more success and has been more aggressive with non-CSDs. 7/20/2011 32 academic session led by Prof. J. K. Mitra, FMS, Delhi Non-CSD beverage Non-CSD beverage The business illustration for non-CSDs is somewhat different from the classic CSD model (pp. 1-14) The supply chain and bottling requirements conduct complexity to the value chain, compared with the relatively simple CSD model. 7/20/2011 33 Session led by Prof. J. K. Mitra, FMS, Delhi Non-CSD beverage Non-CSD beverage The basic principles of the business remain the alike(p) atomic number 6 and Pepsi own the brand and control harvest-feast development Dedicated bottlers leverage economies of sc ope in diffusion (selling to same outlet, same trucks). There are exceptionse. g. , Gatorade is delivery through food wholesalers. As niche products, non-CSDs carried prices and margins that are higher for everyone in the value chain. /20/2011 34 Session led by Prof. J. K. Mitra, FMS, Delhi The Implications of Bottled pissing The Implications of Bottled Water Will gust and Pepsi be able to repeat their success with CSD in the water segment, or will a new competitive dynamic emerge? (page 14) 7/20/2011 35 Session led by Prof. J. K. Mitra, FMS, Delhi Bottled Water Bottled Water Repeat of CSD New (less attractive) Industry Structure Economies of scale in advertising Hard to create brand loyalty Barriers to entry in distribution Highly fragmented, competitive structure Similar economics of concentrate crocked High price sensitivity Little differentiation (e. . , taste) 7/20/2011 36 Session led by Prof. J. K. Mitra, FMS, Delhi Bottled Water Bottled Water Unless Coke and Pepsi can ge nerate brand loyalty and establish their brands, water is more likely to become a commodity-like product, where despite the scale and barriers in distribution, close of the profits will be extracted by the distribution channel (retailers) kinda than by the concentrate companies or (especially) the bottlers. 7/20/2011 37 Session led by Prof. J. K. Mitra, FMS, Delhi Summary of the CaseSummary of the Case 1. superstar of the clearest examples on how firms can create and exercise market power. 2. To really infer the opportunities for strategy, we have to look at the underlying economics of the firm and the industry, and its related to (upstream and downstream) parts. Without understanding the economics of the CP and bottler, we cannot understand the motivations and the likely success of moves like good integration. 7/20/2011 38 Session led by Prof. J. K. Mitra, FMS, Delhi

Saturday, February 23, 2019

An Assessment of Nhif Utilization in Kiwanja Market

AN judicial decision OF THE UTILIZATION OF NHIF BY RESIDENTS OF KIWANJA MARKET, KAHAWA WEST LOCATION, KASARANI DIVISION IN NAIROBI. Presented by Ann Mwangi modification f t start ensemble I30/2160/2006 A research proposal submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the detail of Bachelor of Science (nursing and earthly concern wellness) in the crop of wellness sciences of Kenyatta University. February, 2010. DECLARATION STUDENTS DECLARATION This proposal is my headmaster lick and has not been presented for both academic award in every other(a) University or college.Signature season.. Name Ann Mwangi Registration fall I30/2160/2006 SUPERVISORS DECLARATION This proposal has been submitted for review with my approval as a university supervisor. Signature .. Date. Name Mrs. Makworo Department treat sciences. ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS NHIF depicted object infirmary dam epochs Fund MOH Ministry of wellness CAP ChapterHMOs wellness caution adm inistration UNICEF United Nations Childrens Fund KIPPRA Kenya institute for public constitution research activities and digest operative DEFINITIONS wellness c ar- Goods and go roled as inputs to produce wellness. In some analyses is own condemnation and acquaintance habituated to main(prenominal)tain and promote wellness ar considered in additional to conventional inputs. Used synonymously with Medic ar in this regard. wellness sustentation organization (HMOs) It is a managed fearfulness plan that integrates deport and delivery of a comprehensive set of wellness cargon go to an enrolled nation. HMOs may perplex with or directly employ wellness care fork overrs. genial policy Its a goernment redress policy course of instructionme in which eligibility and premiums are not indomitable by the practices common to orphic indemnification contracts. Premiums are oftentimes subsidized and there is typic tot exclusivelyyy redistri preciselyion from some seg ments of the state to others. wellness care finance- Refers to remunerative or support of wellness care gos provided or to be provided.It is not Medicare per se that consumers want scarcely wellness itself. Medicare postulate is a derived demand for an input that is used to produce wellness. Health care consumers do not merely purchase passively from the merchandise, but or else produce it, spending time on health improve efforts in addition to purchasing Medicare input. ABSTRACT The depicted object hospital damages Fund (NHIF) is an essential aspect of health care financial support through and through price of admissionible health amends in Kenya. It was conventional by the g overnment of Kenya (GoK) in 1966 as a sociable amends fund.At its inception, the NHIF was meant to assist GoK employees to unclutter access to higher t iodine of voice private hospitals, thereby relieving congestion in the free public hospitals. The NHIF has primarily concentrate on the egg heavens employees in the past round quaternion decades. This has leftfield those use in the slack area. This show is attempts to analyze and beneathstand the demand for loving health redress policy of the at large(p) heavens workers in Kiwanja grocery by mensurateing their perceptions and knowledge of and concerns regarding National infirmary damages Fund.It leave alone serve to explore how to a great extent informal empyrean workers could be integrated into the NHIF scheme. The research design to be used everyow for be a descriptive cross-sectional instruction. The force field of lead is Kiwanja market place in Kahawa west military position. The study population entrust acknowledge Kiwanja residents supra 18 familys of age, and employed in the informal celestial sphere. The type size of it allow be 76 as curbd use a archetype statistical formula and the respondents selected through thud sampling. A structured questionnaire volition be used to collect info. Pretesting of the discipline parade tool go out be through with(p) in Kihunguro subject field in Ruiru.The info hoard pull up stakes be entered, coded and k tickerd into variables apply SPSS version 12- computer computer software and excel computer packages. Quantitative data leave behind be analyzed using SPSS version 10 computer software. Presentation of quantitive information will be done using statistical packages (graphs, charts, tables and pie charts). The findings, conclusions and recommendations of this study will be very important in formulating sentience campaigns and cultivational materials that will enable the residents of Kiwanja in the informal sphere of involution to perform the signifi gutterce of NHIF programmes in financing their healthcare.TABLE OF CONTENTS DECLARATIONii ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMSiii OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONSiv ABSTRACTv CHAPTER bingle1 1. 0 INTRODUCTION1 1. 1Background to the study1 1. 2Statement of the problem4 1. 3Justification of the study5 1. 4 look into questions5 1. 5 Objectives of the study6 1. 5. 1 Broad objective6 1. 5. 2 Specific objectives6 1. 6 Research assumptions6 1. 7Significance of the study6 CHAPTER TWO7 2. 0 writings REVIEW7 2. 1 well-disposed health restitution7 2. 2 health care financing through health insurance in Kenya9 2. 2. 1 The National Hospital Insurance Fund (NHIF). 10 2. 2. 2 favorable rank to NHIF10 . 2. 3 Mode of Payment11 2. 2. 4 Benefits and cover11 2. 2. 5 How to access benefits11 2. 2. 6 Accredited hospitals12 2. 2. 7 Milestones12 2. 2. 8 The future of NHIF12 2. 3 Factors influencing employ of hearty health insurance services. 13 2. 3. 1 Feasibility analyses of brotherly health insurance14 CHAPTER collar20 3. 0 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY20 3. 1 Research design20 3. 2 take on area20 3. 3 contain population20 3. 4 cellular inclusion and exclusion criteria20 3. 4. 1 Inclusion criteria20 3. 4. 5 Exclusion criteria20 3. 5 Sampling proficiency and specimen size21 3. 5. 1 Sample size determination21 . 5. 2 Sampling proficiency22 3. 6 Data collection procedures22 3. 6. 1 Research instruments22 3. 6. 2 Pre testing22 3. 6. 3 Data collection process22 3. 7 Data management23 3. 8 Limitations of the study23 3. 9 Ethical considerations23 REFERENCES24 WORK PLAN FOR THE STUDY. 26 BUDGET27 APPENDICES28 INSTRUMENT FOR DATA COLLECTION (QUESTIONNAIRE)28 CONSENT FORM31 MAP OF STUDY AREA32 CHAPTER ONE 1. 0 INTRODUCTION 1. 1Background to the study The concept of National Hospital insurance Fund (NHIF) is an important aspect of healthcare financing through favorable health insurance in Kenya.In a developing state ilk Egypt, the Health Insurance Organization (HIO) is prominent among some health institutions involved in health financing and readying, and a key shammer in the countrys health sector reform programme. It was ceremonious in 1964 as the institution in Egypt responsible for societal health insurance, providing haughty healt h insurance to workers in the formal sector (Abd et al. , 1997). angiotensin converting enzyme of the overall goals of the Government of Kenya is to promote and improve the health office of all Kenyans by making health services more(prenominal) effective, accessible, and affordable. in that locationfore health policy in the country revolves around two critical issues, to wit how to deliver a base package of caliber health services, and how to finance and manage those services in a way that guarantees their availability, accessibility and affordability to those in most need most health care (Kimani, Muthaka, and Manda, 2004). On achieving liberty in 1963, the Government of Kenya (GoK) committed itself to providing free health services as part of its development schema to alleviate poverty and improve the wellbeing and returnivity of the nation (GoK press, 1965).This pledge was honored in 1964 with the discontinuation of the pre-independence substance absubstance abuser fees , and the free-baseing of free outpatient services and hospitalization for all children in the public health facilities. Services in the public health facilities remained free for all except those in employment whose expenses were met by their employers (Owino, W. and Were, M. , 1998). finished financial acquit from the central government, strategies were developed to expand the health infrastructure and support the full health administration. The GoK established NHIF in 1966 as a tender insurance fund.At its inception, the NHIF was meant to assist GoK employees to gain access to higher quality private hospitals, thereby relieving congestion in the free public hospitals. The NHIF has mainly accented on the formal sector employees in the past around four decades. This has left those employed in the informal sector. Structural reforms and inadequate stintingal growth have increasingly pushed labor into the informal and small eggshell agriculture sectors where livelihoods a re often insecure and incomes are low and in definite (Kimani, Muthaka, and Manda, 2004).As a way of r each(prenominal)ing out to those in the informal sector and the poor, the government plans to transform the accredited NHIF to National Social Health Insurance Fund (NSHIF). The aim is to ensure equity and access to healthcare services by the poor and those in the informal sector, who have been left out for the last forty years that the NHIF has been in existence. It is similarly anticipate that the refreshing scheme will increase healthcare services workout, which has suffered under cost sharing, by extending benefit package to also cover outpatient care.The current cost sharing will be replaced by pre-paid percentage into the new scheme (Kimani, Muthaka, and Manda, 2004). The principal choices for financing a health care frame are general r in timeues, affable insurance funding, and private insurance financing and out of pocket salaryments. General revenue financing he re refers to a outline of revenue collection through a gigantic found tax. all(a) or portion of this tax may be devote to the health care system . general revenues may be brocaded at the federal, state, provincial, or local take aims.According to the United Nations system of guinea pig paper, 1993, Annex IV par. 4. 111, an insurance programme is designated as a well-disposed insurance programme if at least one of the following leashsome conditions is met a) Participation in the programme is compulsory either by justness or by conditions of employment. b) The programme is operated on behalf of a group and is dependant to group atoms. c) An employer makes a persona to the programme on behalf of the employee. National Hospital Insurance Fund (NHIF) is therefore a social insurance financing in Kenya.NHIFs core function is to collect donations from all Kenyans earning an income of over Ksh 1000 ($12) and make hospital benefits out of the voices to outgrowths and their d eclared dependants (spouse and children) Whilst ensuring that Kenyans of all walks of life have access to quality and affordable healthcare, NHIF operates under the social rule that the rich should support the poor, the healthy should support the sick and the young should support the old. 2. Statement of the problem The GoK established NHIF in 1966 as a social insurance fund. At its nception, the NHIF was meant to assist GoK employees to gain access to higher quality private hospitals, thereby relieving congestion in the free public hospitals. The NHIF has mainly focused on the formal sector employees in the past around four decades. This has left those employed in the informal sector (Republic of Kenya, 2003a). there exists an information gap on informal sector Kenyans use of NHIF services, in instances where studies focus on informal sector employees, NHIF is a social health insurance and an important aspect healthcare financing in Kenya that is often neglected or not to the full explored.Majority of studies carried out focus on utilization of NHIF services across general Kenyan population irrespective of the employment sector. This has led to formulation of healthcare financing programmes that do not address the specific needs of Kenyans in the informal sector. to a greater extent so, tools of analysis by most relevant studies are limited to univariate and bivariate analysis falling short of examining the net effect of selected background and ordinary factors negatively impacting healthcare accessibility and utilizations by workers in the informal sector of employment.The study is designed to assess the level of knowledge and utilization of NHIF in Kiwanja market because it is an area whose majority of residents are in the informal sector of employment. 3. Justification of the study Taking into considerations the subsisting information gap on utilization of NHIF services by informal sector employees, it is important to abridge this study in Kiwanja market to establish the sense level and its use. Kiwanja market is a densely populated area behind Kenyatta University. Majority of Kiwanja residents are in the informal sector.The study is designed to report the potential hindrances of utilization of NHIF services in Kiwanja residents in the informal sector and ways of how to carry away them. The study seeks to explain and provide a systematic body of knowledge that can be explored for appropriate policy formulation, to act as an eye opener and reminder to both the NHIF management team, and other stakeholders to raise the utilization of NHIF services by the informal sector in Kenya. Knowledge shortage regarding NHIF benefits and use to finance health care commits greatly to the high fatality rate and morbidity rates overdue to poor health seeking behaviour (Inke et al. 2004). Provision of information and facelift knowingness on NHIF benefits and use will reduce significantly the number of pregnant women delivering at home due to lack of funds to pay for hospital delivery. 1. 4 Research questions The research questions for the study will be a) How informed are the members of Kiwanja market approximately NHIF benefits? b) What percentage of Kiwanja market residents use NHIF services and are in the informal sector? 1. 5 Objectives of the study 1. 5. 1 Broad objective To assess the sense on NHIF benefits and utilization of NHIF services by Kiwanja market residents. . 5. 2 Specific objectives a) To find out the knowledge level of Kiwanja residents approximately NHIF. b) To determine the number of Kiwanja residents who are NHIF beneficiaries. 1. 6 Research assumptions The residents of Kiwanja market are conditioned most health care financing, they are aware rough NHIF benefits but they do not use it because they think it is only meant to benefit those citizenry in the formal employment sector. 7. Significance of the study This study aims at finding out if Kiwanja residents utilize NHIF services.In a ddressing the objectives, the study will constitute the level of utilization of NHIF services, factors influencing its utilization and come up with ways of addressing any shortcomings that will be identified and help in up(p) NHIF services utilization. The findings, conclusions and recommendations of this study will be important in formulating awareness campaigns and educational materials that will enable the residents of Kiwanja in the informal sector of employment to realize the significance of NHIF programmes in financing their healthcare.This study attempts to find out the awareness on NHIF benefits and use by residents of Kiwanja market. It will therefore benefit the residents of Kiwanja and indue them to acquire their human right of health care. CHAPTER TWO 2. 0 LITERATURE REVIEW 2. 1 Social health insurance The concept of health insurance was first proposed in 1694 by Hugh the Elder Chamberlen from the Peter Chamberlen family. In the late 19th century, accident insurance b egan to be available, which operated much(prenominal) like modern disability insurance.This defrayment model continued until the start of the twentieth century in some jurisdictions (like California), where all natural laws regulating health insurance actually referred to disability insurance. During the 1920s, one-on-one hospitals began offering services to individuals on a pre-paid basis, eventually leading to the development of Blue Cross organizations. The predecessors of todays Health forethought Organizations (HMOs) originated beginning in 1929, through the 1930s and on during World fight II (Weber, 1994).A health insurance scheme is social when it subsidizes the poor, the gray and the sick, and when it promotes equity and access to everyone and not for profit. The core values in social health insurance embody a concern for the plight of the poor. In social insurance financing, health services are paid for through contributions to a health fund. The most common basis for contributions is payroll, with both the employer and the employee paying a percentage of the salary. In general, membership to a social health insurance schemes is obligatory, although it can be self-imposed to authentic groups such as the self-employed.The health fund is usually independent of the government but industrial plant within a tight framework of regulations. Premiums are linked to the modal(a) cost of treatment for the group as a whole, not to the expect cost of care for the individual (Conn , 1998). While there is no universally accepted definition of what social insurance is, Kraushaar and Akumu (1993) outline some broad characteristics, which are generally agreed upon. These are a) Coverage is generally compulsory by law ) Eligibility for benefits is derived from contributions having been make to the programme c) The benefits for one individual are not usually directly link up to contributions made by that individual but often those benefits aim to redistri bute income between different income groups. This redistribution is usually from the rich to the lower income groups or from those with few to those with many dependants. Equity of benefits regardless of payment is the rule. d) There is generally a plan or the financing of benefits that is designed to be adequate in the long term. ) Governments manage roughly all such social insurance organizations. f) Revenues go fully and noncontroversial to health and are not controlled by the treasury in a exitn country. Conn and Walford (1998) explain the rationale for health insurance in a low-income country with the following three arguments a) Attracting additional scorecards for health. This is so because health insurance is perceived as an additional source of money for healthcare. Consumers are more en thenceiastic about paying for health insurance than paying general taxation as benefits are specific and visible. ) acquiring better value for money because consumers are more able an d choose to pay regular, affordable premiums rather than paying fees for treatment when they are ill. c) up the quality and posterioring of healthcare. Historically, HMOs tended to use the term health plan, while moneymaking(prenominal) insurance companies used the term health insurance. A health plan can also refer to a subscription- ground medical care arrangement offered through HMOs, preferred provider organizations, or demonstrate of service plans. These plans are similar to pre-paid dental, pre-paid legal and pre-paid vision plans.Pre-paid health plans typically pay for a fixed number of services. The services offered are usually at the discretion of a utilization review nurse who is often assure through the managed care entity providing the subscription health plan. This determination may be made either prior to or aft(prenominal) hospital admission (Weber, 1994) 2. 2 Healthcare financing through health insurance in Kenya Health insurance in Kenya has been provided by bo th private and public systems. The main objectives of the he health systems have been to insure Kenyans against health risks that they may fiddle in future.Health insurance is considered private when the third party (insurer) is a profit organization (Republic of Kenya, 2003a). In private insurance, people pay premiums related to expected cost of providing services to them. Therefore people who are in high health risk groups pay more, and those at low risks pay less. Cross-subsidy between people with different risks of ill health is limited. Membership is usually voluntary. Public health insurance in Kenya is provided by the National Hospital Insurance Fund (Kimani, Muthaka, and Manda, 2004). 2. 2. The National Hospital Insurance Fund (NHIF). The NHIF was established in 1966 under chapter (CAP) 255 of the Laws of Kenya to be run by an Advisory Council positive by the Minister of Health. The NHIF was established in 1966 under CAP 255 of the Laws of Kenya to be run by an Advisory Co uncil appointed by the Minister of Health. It catered for compensated employees earning Kshs. 1, 000 and higher up per month, making a monthly contribution of Kshs. 20/= . In 1972 an amendment was made to incorporate voluntary members (self-employed) at a monthly contribution of Kshs. 0/=. In 1998, Cap 255 was repealed and replaced by the NHIF Act No. 9 of 1998 which transformed the fund to a State Corporation managed by an all inclusive Board representing various stakeholders and interest groups (Republic of Kenya, 2003a). 2. 2. 2 Membership to NHIF Membership to NHIF is open to all Kenyans aged 18 years and higher up earning a monthly income of kshs. 1000 or an average yearly income of kshs. 12, 000. There is no upper ceiling for the age. 2. 2. 3 Mode of Payment Employers effect deductions and circumvent to the fund by cheque or cash, and E-banking.Members in the informal sector pay in any of the NHIF offices Kshs. 160 per month for informal sector members. Members in the info rmal sector pay in any of the NHIF offices. All payments should be received by the 9th of the following month. For retirees/self employed persons payment for the year may be paid upfront quarterly, semi-annually and/or annually. 2. 2. 4 Benefits and cover a) It covers all admission cases with few exceptions such as circumcision with no medical checkup required. b) Covers member, spouse and children under the age of 18 year. ) Children over 18 yrs and in learning institutions are also covered d) It covers for clxxx age of hospitalization in a year. NHIF pay a day by day rebate which ranges from Ksh. 400/= to Ksh. 2, 200/= Foreign guides. The number of other spouses is not limited and depends on the ability to pay for them. 2. 2. 5 How to access benefits Through presentation of the following to hospital on admission Current NHIF Card- both manilla and photo card, Certificate of Contributions Paid (CCP) receipt and the national identity element card. The accredited hospitals deduc t the quotidian rebate X number of days of hospitalization from the incurred bill.While for the contracted hospitals under category A, the entire bill is made by the Fund, the Fund reimburses member for costs incurred to the extent of the daily rebate if for one reason or another he /she is ineffectual to use the card in Hospital. All claims should be received within 90 days after hospitalization. 2. 2. 6 Accredited hospitals Four snow and fifteen health care providers have been enlisted across the country to provide services to NHIF beneficiaries under various contracts. Accreditation by NHIF is ground on certain set standards and criteria for purpose of NHIF benefits.Quality Assurance and Standards Department consistently monitors the quality of services. 2. 2. 7 Milestones Increased rebates up to a maximum of 2,200 depending on hospital accreditation. It has an extensive branch network with 27 branches, satellite and window offices. It offers decentralised services, computeriz ed operations and services and has a quality assurance and standards department in place. 2. 2. 8 The future of NHIF NHIF in future will use magnetic stripe card in hospitals to access benefits, introduction of diversified product lines, and further expansion of branch network.The ministry of health has designed a mandatory social health insurance scheme which seeks to transform the NHIF into a National Social Health Insurance Fund (NSHIF) to provide health insurance cover to both outpatients and inpatients. The main objective of the fund is to facilitate the provision of accessible, affordable and quality healthcare services to all its members irrespective of their age, economic or social status (Republic of Kenya, 2003c). 2. 3 Factors influencing utilization of social health insurance services. In most economically advanced countries, adequate social security laws are basically taken for granted.However, it often took many decades for social security systems to benefit all or maj or parts of the population in those countries. In the area of social health protection, for example, it took Japan 36 years to move from the enactment of the first health insurance law to the final law establishing nation-wide social health insurance. In the United Kingdom, a similar time period was needed to achieve its universal tax-based system (Inke et. al. 2004) Social Health Insurance (SHI) is not a widely adopt health financing mechanism in Africa.While there are many countries that operate a health insurance scheme for civic servants and/or private sector employees only some of these accept features of a SHI, its appeal to cover larger parts of the population has been growing. Countries including Ghana, Nigeria and Rwanda have passed SHI laws. former on, Kenya investigated the feasibility of SHI and Lesotho and Swaziland are doing so now. One distinct feature is that it does not call exclusively on public finance, but instead spreads the business of health care financing among households and the private sector as well.From that point of view, tax-based systems in Africa are particularly challenged the overall tax base may need to be streng henceed, tax compliance may require improvement, and then a sufficient allocation towards health would have to be called for. Still, social health insurance is not a panacea either. It requires that an important organizational apparatus be put in place and that many actors in society shoulder critical responsibilities, such as the willingness and ability to contribute to the SHI scheme and then to comply with its regulations, thereby accepting a certain degree of financial solidarity (Kimani Muthaka ,and Manda, 2004).Aiming at universal health coverage for its 9. 5 million populations, Rwanda has spearheaded the development of a number of schemes that together constitute its SHI system. The three most important ones are the Rwandaise dassurance maladie (RAMA), the Medical Military Insurance (MMI) and the Assuran ces Maladies Communautaires (AMCs). The RAMA social health insurance is compulsory for government employees and voluntary for private sector employees. Its contribution rate is 15% of basic salary (shared equally etween employee and employer). MMI covers all military personnel, who pay a contribution rate of 22. 5% of basic salary (5% paid by employee and 17. 5% by government). AMCs are community-based health insurance schemes whose members are mainly rural dwellers and informal sector workers in both rural and urban areas. They make up the majority of the population by the end of 2007 about 5. 7 million Rwandans were covered by AMCs. Members usually contribute 1000 Rwandan Francs (1. 5 US$) per person per year which is matched by the government (Stilglitz, J. E. , 2000) 2. 3. 1 Feasibility analyses of social health insurance Since 2002, the WHO has been involved in technical advisory work especially on assessing the feasibility of SHI in Kenya, Lesotho and Swaziland in collaboratio n with national experts from those countries. In each country we analyzed the financial, organizational and policy-making feasibility. Below we present some of the highlights of this work that should help us in formulating general guidance (Inke et. al. 2004) In Kenya, one basic financial scenario was that of gradual implementation of universal health coverage coverage by a possible National Social Health Insurance Fund (NSHIF) would reach 62% of the population after 10 years, with further expansion in the second decade of SHI implementation. An important feature is that such a scenario would only be conceivable with pricyly government subsidies. Without such subsidies, access to health care among low-income households would be jeopardized, as the contributions From formal sector employees and civil servants would be insufficient to cross-subsidize the needed health care of the poor.External donors financial support, however, could alleviate this extra financial preventative on government. In fact, a variant of the basic scenario assumes that external donors would finance the provision of antiretroviral therapy, which would reduce the required government subsidies by about 20%. As far as the organizational aspects are concerned, it was studied whether the existing National Hospital Insurance Fund, a mandatory hospital insurance scheme for the formal sector with a small part of voluntary insurance for informal sector workers, might be transformed into the NSHIF.The last mentioned would then be governed by a Board of Trustees with representatives from civil society. It is also interesting to note that the proposed NSHIF would include a Department of Fraud and investigation in order to check the funds financial activities. Civil society groups and enterprises such as the Post Office would also be cookn a role, especially in the collection of contributions from households in the informal sector (Inke et. al. , 2004) Concerning its political feasibility, con sultations were held with a great number of stakeholders and interest groups, and most were supportive of the proposed NSHIF. entirely Kenyas private Health Maintenance Organizations were very critical and had doubts about NSHIF feasibility. Finally, in 2004, the Kenyan Parliament passed a law on the NSHIF. However, President Kibaki judged it lifelessness needed amendments and returned it to Parliament for further debate that is still ongoing. Nonetheless, with a semipermanent vision, the existing National Hospital Insurance Fund is undertaking a number of institutional changes to increase membership and extend benefits so as to be better prepared should SHI take off (Inke et al. 2004) Factors which influence the use of NHIF services in Kenya include ignorance, socio-economic factors, cultural factors, and demographic factors. Services information availability and accessibility also determines the utilization of social health insurance. Owino and Were (1998), in their study of enha ncing healthcare among the vulnerable groups in Kenya ,found out that higher levels of awareness on health insurance, was associated with greater use of social insurance and thus better healthcare among the vulnerable people.In another study , a poverty survey by the UNICEF and overseas development Agency in 1995/96,it was found that user fees in Kenya made visits to government facilities prohibitively high-priced as the poor were required to make payments to reach the registration table, instead of using social insurance rebates. Worse, after the payments, the patients were asked to provide paper for magnetic disk purposes. These costs could have been covered less difficultly by NHIF or more so NSHIF were they well informed of the benefits and the ease of membership.The study by Mwabu and Wangombe (1995) showed that the introduction of outpatient fees in Kenyas public hospitals reduced the demand by a large proportion, and concluded that introduction of fees, or any upward revisi ons should be preceded by investments to raise quality of services and a well worked system of health insurance. The people should then be well sensitized on the benefits of joining into health insurance schemes. Huber (1993) did a systematic assessment of outpatients requiring exemptions, based on data from surveys in three districts in Kenya. The calculation was based on information on the households ability to pay.The study established the criteria for determining ability to pay on the assumption that households do not need to pay more than 5% of their annual incomes on healthcare from their pocket fees. As a result, households with cumulative health expenditures greater than 5% were assumed to qualify for the exemptions. The main conclusion from the study was that, it is not possible to tell who cannot pay fees by personal characteristics and so all people of the entire population should be enlightened on social insurance schemes such as NHIF and be encouraged to be members even when they are self employed.In a study carried out in Kenya (coast province) by Inke Mathaue (2007), on assessment affecting health services demand extending social health insurance to informal sector in Kenya. Inke found out that, in the sum mix of the demand-side determinants can be address with a well designed strategy, focusing on awareness raising and information, improvement of insurance design features and setting differentiated and affordable contribution rates. In another study done by Mwangi W. M. and Mwabu, G.M (2006) on health care financing in Kenya simulation of welfare effects of user fee, they found out that the introduction of user selective contribution charges would improve social insurance programmes such as the NHIF. The National Hospital Insurance Fund is the most important health insurance program in Kenya. Membership is compulsory for all civil servants. As of 1990, contribution levels proved insufficient to meet hospital costs and the government was plann ing to broker private health insurance policies. The government is continually better and upgrading existing health facilities and opening new ones.Private health institutions account for 60% of total medical equipment and supplies (import value). Kenya also has a well-developed pharmaceutical industry that can produce most medications recommended by the World Health Organization (republic of Kenya, 1999) In order to increase the utilization of NHIF services, we need to raise the awareness on NHIF benefits to the people of Kiwanja market majority of who are struggling to pay for healthcare from their pockets. This study therefore, sets out to assess the utilization of NHIF services and identify factors that hinder its use by Kiwanja residents.The Government of Kenya has addressed the issue of inequalities and poor performance in a number of policy documents. The efforts made under the First Health Sector Plan (1999-2004) did not contribute towards improving Kenyas health status. I n 2005, the Second Health Sector strategic Plan was implemented. This will run until 2010. In order to improve the funding of the healthcare system and to give more Kenyans access to better healthcare, the Ministry of Health is planning to introduce a National Social Health Insurance Fund (NSHIF).This is a social insurance scheme to which everyone will contribute, without exception. CHAPTER THREE 3. 0 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 3. 1 Research design The study will be a cross-sectional descriptive study which will assess the awareness of the residents of Kiwanja market on NHIF services and benefits. 3. 2 Study area The research will be carried out in Kiwanja market which is located behind Kenyatta University, approximately 2 kilometers from the capital of Kenya Thika dual trailer truck highway. 3. 3 Study populationThe study population will include Kiwanja market residents who are in the informal sector employment, who have reach the age of 18 years and earn an income of at least one thou sand shillings per month. Kiwanja market has a total population of approximately 28,000 and about 5600 households as per the records in the chiefs office of Kahawa west location. 3. 4 Inclusion and exclusion criteria 3. 4. 1 Inclusion criteria The study will include Kiwanja market residents, who are self employed or employed in the informal sector.The respondents to be included must have attained the age of 18 years and consented to be used as respondents in the study. 3. 4. 5 Exclusion criteria The study will exclude students of Kenyatta University residing in Kiwanja market, residents under 18 years of age, and those who will decline to give consent. 3. 5 Sampling technique and sample size 3. 5. 1 Sample size determination The sample size will be determined by using the standard sample size calculation formula by Mugenda and Mugenda, 2003. nf = pic(Mugenda & Mugenda, 2003) Where nf =desired sample size (If the target population is 10,000) =the proportion of the target population e stimated to be in the informal sector taken as 50% z =Standard normal deviation which is 1. 96 at 99 % level of confidence q=1 p=1-0. 5=0. 5 d= point in time of accuracy desired is 0. 08 (Fischer et al, 1998) n=the desired sample size (when the target population is 10,000) N=the population of Kiwanja resident households which is 5600 n =1. 962 ? 0. 5 ? 0. 5 0. 082 =76. 64 nf= 5600=75. 60 therefore sample size=76 1+ (5600/76. 64) 3. 5. 2 Sampling technique Cluster sampling technique will be used till an adequate sample size is achieved.Kiwanja market area will be divided into four bundles of approximately 1400 households each. There will be cluster A, B, C, and D. cluster A will be on the eastern part of the safaricom booster, cluster B will be on the western part of the safaricom booster while clusters C and D will be north and south of the booster respectively. Each cluster will contribute 25% of the sample size thus 19 respondents will be issued with the questionnaires. 3. 6 Dat a collection procedures 3. 6. 1 Research instruments A structured questionnaire will be used to collect data during the study. 3. 6. 2 Pre testingPre testing of the study tool will be done at Kihunguro area in Ruiru town. 10% of the sample size will be used to test the data collection tool. 3. 6. 3 Data collection process A structured questionnaire will be issued to the respondents after an informed consent is given. The first respondent per cluster will be identified through simple random sampling technique and the next subjects will be selected by snowball sampling until a sample of 19 is obtained. Field editing will be done to the raw data obtained. . 3. 7 Data management Data salmagundi and coding will be carried out during preparation of the questionnaires.The data collected will be entered, coded and keyed into variables using SPSS version 12- computer software and excel computer packages. Quantitive data will be analyzed using SPSS version 10 computer software. Presentation of quantitive information will be done using statistical packages (graphs, charts, tables and pie charts). 3. 8 Limitations of the study Time will be limiting factor as the time frame for the study is short compared to the workload that will be involved in the study. collectible to inadequate time and limited resources, it will be impossible for the study to be carried out in the entire Kahawa west location.This therefore will make generalization impossible because of using only one locality for the study. The research worker will also be disadvantaged in footing of personnel in that the researcher will be the only one carrying out the study with no assistants involved. 3. 9 Ethical considerations The researcher will ensure the following ethical considerations i. Introductory letter from Kenyatta University, Department of Nursing Sciences. ii. Letter of authorization from chief of Kahawa west location.. iii. All respondents will give informed consent before being interviewed. i v. Confidentiality will be maintained.The researcher will provide feedback to the gatekeepers in the community (chief) and Kenyatta University, Department of Nursing Sciences REFERENCES 1. Abd El Fattah, H. I. Saleh, E. Ezzat, S. El-Sahaty, M. El Adawy, A. K. Nandakuma, C. Connor, H. Salah(1997). The health insurance organization of Egypt An analytical review and strategy for reform. Technical report No 43. Bethesda, MD Partnerships for health reform project, Abt Associates Inc. 2. Arrow, K. J. (1963). irresolution and the welfare economics of medical care. American Economic review. 3. Inke Mathauer, Guy, C, Doetinchem, O. , Joses, K, Laurent, M. (2004).Social health insurance how feasible is its expansion in the African region, ISS, Rotterdam. 4. Kraushaar, D. (1994). Health insurance what is it, how it works. Financing districts Health Services international workshop 5. Kraushaar. & O. Akumu (1993). Financial sustainability of health programmes the role of the national hospita l insurance fund. Nairobi Government of Kenya. 6. Manda, Kimani. D. , (2004) Healthcare financing through health insurance in Kenya the shift to a national social health insurance fund. Kenya Institute for Public insurance policy Research Activities and Analysis (KIPPRA), Nairobi, Kenya. . Republic of Kenya (2003a). The National Social Health Insurance Strategy. Prepared by the Task Force on the Establishment of compulsory National Social Health Insurance. 8. Republic of Kenya (1999). Kenya Gazette supplement, Acts, 1999. The national hospital insurance fund Act, 1998. Nairobi government printer. 9. Republic of Kenya, (1997). Economic survey. Nairobi government printer. 10. Shaw, P. (1998) Financing healthcare in the sub-Saharan Africa through user fees and insurance. World bank 11. Stliglitz, J. E. (2000). Economics of the public sector (third edition). W. W.Norton 12. World blaspheme (1993). World development report 1993 investing in health. Oxford university press. 13. Tech link International (1999). A renewed NHIF final report manual. WORK PLAN FOR THE STUDY. Task Months January February work April Preparation, and approval of proposal Wk 1 Purchasing stationery 500 transferral 1500 Proposal preparation 2,000 Data collection 3,000 Data processing and analysis 2,000 Lunch 1500 miscellaneous 1500 Total 12,000 APPENDICES INSTRUMENT FOR DATA COLLECTION (QUESTIONNAIRE) instructions Please tick ( ) in the brackets representing the most appropriate response. Additional informational can also be given in the provide spaces or at the back of the questionnaire. 1 a) How old are you? (In complete years) 18-24years ( ) 25-34 years ( ) 35-44years ( ) 44years and above ( ) b) What is your gender? Male ( ) female ( ) 2.What is your highest level education? Never at peace(p) to school ( ) primary school ( ) secondary ( ) post secondary education ( ) 3. What is your religion? Christian ( ) Muslim ( ) Bahai ( ) other ( gratify specify ).. 4. What is your marital status? Single ( ) married ( ) divorced ( ) separated ( ) single parent ( ) widowed ( ) other (please specify) .. 5 a) what is your main occupation? Self employed ( ) civil servant ( ) ? 6. Have you ever heard about NHIF? YES ( ) NO ( ) b) How many dependants do you have? .. 7. IF Yes in question 6 above, where did you hear about it? ) Heard from a friend b) I am a benefactive role or a member if NHIF c) My parents are members of NHIF d) At my place of work 8. Are you a National Hospital Insurance Fund member or beneficiary? Yes ( ) No ( ) 9. If yes in question 9 above how do you rate NHIF services in the scale below out of ten0-3 poor ( ) 3-5 below average ( ) 5-7 good ( ) 7-10 very good ( ) 10. If no in number 9 above, please tick as appropriate the reason why you are not member or beneficiary of NHIF a) I have never heard about NHIF b) I do not know the benefits of NHIF c) There is no branch of NHIF in Kiwanja market d) I am not employed in the forma l sector. 11.If you are a beneficiary of NHIF, would you like to be a member? Yes ( ) no ( ) 12 If no in number 11 above, please as appropriate the reason why. a) I am not employed in the formal sector. b) There is no branch of NHIF in Kiwanja market. c) I have to think about it first and consult my husband about it. d) The monthly contribution is too much for me. 13. If yes in number 11 above, how many beneficiaries will benefit from your cover? None ( ) my spouse ( ) my children ( ) my parents ( ) other.. 14. Do you think that NHIF services will ease your burden of financing healthcare for you and your family and significant others?Yes ( ) no ( ) 15. Would like to be an NHIF member? Yes ( ) no ( ) 16. If yes in the above no. 15 do you know what requirements for get a member are? Yes ( ) no ( ) 17. If no in number 16 above, why? a) Because I have just learnt about NHIF now. b) Because I have never had a chance of accessing information about NHIF membership before. c) Because I hav e always thought NHIF is for those in the formal sector. d) I would like some brochures from NHIF on benefits, cover, and how to contribute to the insurance scheme. 18. If you are a member of NHIF have you ever used their services? Yes ( ) no ( ) 19. If no in the above question 18, why? ) I have never been hospitalized. b) None of my beneficiaries have been hospitalized. c) I did not know how to place my claim of cover. d) The process of accessing benefits is too long for me. 20. If yes in the above question 18, where did you use it? a) In a government facility. b) In a mission hospital. c) In a private hospital. d) In a referral hospital such as Kenyatta National Hospital. e) Other (please specify) 20 if yes in question 18 above how did you find NHIF services? a) Average b) Good c) Very good d) resplendent Thank you very much for being a respondent and for your much cooperation. CONSENT FORM Researchers confirmation.I am Ann Mwangi, a Kenyatta university student pursuing a Bachelo rs of science degree in Nursing and Public Health. I am carrying out a study on utilization of NHIF services in Kiwanja market, Kahawa west location in Kasarani Division. I kindly request your permission to interview you. Confidentiality will be guaranteed. Your names will not be required. Signature of researcher.. Date. Respondents consent I have been fully informed about the nature of the study and I hereby give my consent to any information which is required of me. Signature of respondentDate. MAP OF STUDY AREA pic Kiwanja Market