Tuesday, April 2, 2019

Classification of bacteria

Classification of bacteriabacteriaBacteria is a broad term for a famous type of single- cubicleed small organisms, There be thousands of species of bacteria. They actually have their admit domain, which is called Bacteria.Domain is a new set of ag gatherings (Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species.).Bacteria is a Group of microscopic, single-celled microorganisms that survive virtually all environments, including water system, soil, organic matters, and the bodies of plants and animals.Bacteria are distinguished in part by their genetic and morphological features for instance, they whitethorn have spiral, globose or rod ilk shapes.Bacteria are so far-flung that it is possible only to piddle away the most general statements about their bread and butter history and ecology.Bacteria are instal on the tops of spicy mountains, the bottom of the inscrutableest oceans, in the body of animals, and even in the frozen ice.Their capacity to go dormant for an extended period is the main reason of their across-the-board spreadGram satinBacteria give notice be divided into deuce main congregations, deoxyguanosine monophosphate-positive or gram- prejudicious, based on the structure of their cell wall and their reaction to thegram stain. The cell walls of the gram-positive bacteria are really thick and consists of peptidogly shtup ( a complex polymer that consist of 2 unusual types of amino sugars linked to short polypeptides.while, gram- controvert bacteria, their cell walls are consist of 2 layers a thin peptidoglycan wall and a thick outmost membrane.(the outer membrane actually resembles the plasma membrane but it is less porous and composed of lipopolysaccharides (LPS), a harmful substance classified as an endotoxin)Falgella more an(prenominal) bacteria swim by means of flagella which is composed of flagellin protein and it is amenable for the trend of the bacteria, bacteria may have a single flagellum at one pole(monotricate ) or single flagellum at each pole(amphitricate) or as tuft of flagella at one or twain poles (lophotricate) or may be disturbed over the entire cell(periticate).Bacteria with no flagella is called atricate bacteria. deoxyribonucleic acidBacterias DNA isnt found within amembrane inclosed neucles they are usually found in a single circularchromosomeand is distributed throughout thecytoplasm.RespirationMost bacteria may be placed into one of three separates based on their reaction to gaseous oxygen,whether its aerobic, anaerobic or facultative anarobe.Aerobic bacteria are those how can survive only in the presences of oxygen.Anaerobic bacteria cannot wait gaseous oxygen, such as those bacteria which live in deep underwater sediments, or those which cause bacterial diet poisoning.The third group are thefacultative anaerobes, which prefer growing in the presence of oxygen, but can continue to grow without it.Sources of dynamismBacteria may also be classified both by the mode by whi ch they obtain their energy. classify by the source of their energy, bacteria fall into two categories heterotrophs and autotrophsHeterotrophs derive energy from breaking down complex organic compounds that they must take in from the environment this includes saprobic bacteria found in decaying material, as well as those that rely onfermentationorrespiration.The other group, theautotrophs, fix carbon dioxide to make their own victuals source this may be fueled by combust energy (photoautotrophic), or by oxidation of nitrogen, mho, or other elements (chemoautotrophic). plot of ground chemoautotrophs are uncommon, photoautotrophs are common and quite diverse. They include the cyanobacteria, green sulfur bacteria, purple sulfur bacteria, and purple nonsulfur bacteria. The sulfur bacteria are particularly interesting, since they use hydrogen sulfide as hydrogen donor, instead of water like most other photosynthetic organisms, including cyanobacteria.ShapesThere are 7 main group s of bacteria, classified according to their shape.Two of the seven types make up the absolute majority of all bacteria.They can be classified as followsCocciThe gram positive cocci include the well known species Streptococcus and Staphylococcus. Bacteria from both species are considered as friendly bacteria they are effective and they have functions in the tender body and in the environment. Some species can also be pathogenic. Staphylococcus aureus can cause impetigo and scalded skin syndrome, nutrition poisoning and toxic shock syndrome. Streptococcus pyogenes is the culprit usually responsible for tonsillitis and severe sore throats (strep throat), but many other infections maybe caused by it.There are two main types of gram negative cocci, both belongs to the genus Neisseria. Neisseria meningitidis causes a form of meningitis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae causes the gonorrhea infection(a sexually transmitted infection ). The two species are more commonly called the meningococcus a nd the gonococcus.BacilliGram positive bacilli include Corynebacterium diphtheriae, which causes diphtheria, Listeria monocytogenes, found in unpasteurized dairy products and responsible for dangerous infectious in pregnant women, and bacteria from the species Lactobacillus, friendly bacteria found in the gut.This group also includes two of the most dangerous types of bacteria known ever. whiz of them is the Bacillus species that causes anthrax, and the other one is Clostridium. One Clostridium species causes tetanus, another leads to botulism, it causes food poisoning.Gram negative bacilli are a large and varied group that are divided into different categories. The Entrobacteria include many species that cause food poisoning in humans E. coli, Salmonella, Shigella, Proteus, and also the plague bacterium Yersinia pestis. The vibrio group contain bacteria that are shaped more like commas than rods and include the bug that is responsible for cholera.Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is also a gram negative bacillus. This bacterium has been identified in the last 25 years as a major cause of stomach ulcers.Other gram negative bacilli are Bordetella pertussis, which causes whooping cough, Haemophila influenza which causes pneumonia, , and Brucella bacteria, which are associated with brucellosis in cattle. The last group is the Bacteroides, a species of bacteria that are very common in the human gut. In fact, they make up a quarter of the dead bacteria in faeces.Why do we Classify Bacteria?The major wages of the classification of bacteria is to make identification easier. There are many biochemical tests that can separate the different groups and the different species, enabling physicians to make an accurate diagnosis of bacterial infections.Refrenceshttp//www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/bacteria/bacterialh.htmlhttp//www.answers.com/topic/bacteriahttp//www.typesofbacteria.co.uk/how-many-types-bacteria-are-there.htmlhttp//answers.yahoo.com/ doubtfulness/index_ylt=AsS0ifALP m4qGWglSNvbTQgjzKIX_ylv=3?qid=20071007172608AApA2q8http//www.microbiologybytes.com/introduction/graphics/i5.gifhttp//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coccushttp//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coccus

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